- Polish Agri-Food Trade with The United Kingdom in The First Year After Brexit (DOI10.15199/65.2022.5.1)
Łukasz Ambroziak 4
The aim of the article was to describe the changes that took place in the Polish-British trade in agri-food products in 2021, i.e. the first year of the functioning of the United Kingdom outside the European Single Market. From January 1, 2021, EU-UK trade relations are regulated by the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA), which provides, inter alia, duty-free trade between the parties. Polish food producers did relatively well in the British market after Brexit. In 2021, agri-food exports to this market decreased by only 4% compared to the previous year. Much worse results were recorded in import, the value of which decreased by over 40% year on year. After Brexit, Polish exporters strengthened their position on the British market in the sale of canned meat, poultry, sausages, frozen fruit, processed cereals and tobacco products.
KEY WORDA: brexit, agri-food trade, Poland, the United Kingdom
- Spirulina – Why Is It Called Super Food? (DOI10.15199/65.2022.5.2)
Jagoda Kępińska-Pacelik, Wioletta Biel 10
Arthrospira (spirulina) is used as an addition to the diet due to its high nutritional value and safety of use. It is a genus of free-floating cyanobacteria belonging to the order of Oscillatoriales. Two species are used in the food industry: Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima. Spirulina is mainly known for its high protein content, which is around 80% of dry matter. Spirulina is a rich source of many compounds, such as chlorophylls and carotenoids, which are used in the food industry as dyes. Spirulina-derived pigments have the added benefit of potential health benefits for the body, and their consumption has been shown to boost the immune system and reduce the risk of developing chronic degenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. Moreover, spirulina is rich in essential amino acids, vitamins A, B, E and fatty acids. The presence of these compounds makes spirulina lower blood pressure, prevents atherosclerosis and stroke, accelerates the reduction of body fat and lowers cholesterol. The use of spirulina in the food industry is not limited to food coloring. Currently, the market includes, among others, cookies, ice cream, yoghurts and bread with the addition of spirulina. Its addition can significantly delay the lipid oxidation process and reduce the number of undesirable microorganisms, which results in an extended shelf life.
KEY WORDA: Arthrospira, microalgae, spirulina, nutritional value
- Kombucha – A Fermented Tea Drink with A Health-Promoting Properties (DOI10.15199/65.2022.5.3)
Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska, Piotr Lalowski, Ewelina Gocalińska, Dorota Zielińska 17
Kombucha is a fermented drink originated from Asia, produced on the basis of green or black tea with added sugar. There are many types of Kombucha that differ in the composition and production process, especially fermentation conditions of such drinks. Necessary to initiate the fermentation process is the SCOBY (Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast) starter culture. Kombucha has a slightly sour flavour with a sparkling effect. It has antioxidant, antimicrobial, immune and digestive properties. Its antioxidant properties are due to the presence of polyphenols in tea. During the fermentation process, organic acids with a health-promoting effect are formed, including gluconic and glucuronic acid and vitamins. The aim of the study was to discuss the most important components of Kombucha drink and their health-promoting effect on the human body based on the literature data.
KEY WORDA: Kombucha, SCOBY, beverage, pro-health properties
- Comparison Of the Quality of Gluten-Free Bread Baked with Blends of Corn Flour and Legume Flour (DOI10.15199/65.2022.5.4)
Joanna Kaszuba, Justyna Ptak, Karolina Pycia 21
Gluten-free bread is a replacement for traditional bread, which is dedicated to people on a gluten-free diet. The aim of the study was to develop a recipe and test the quality of gluten-free bread baked with blends of corn flour and legume flour in the proportions 50:50, 75:25, 90:10. The gluten-free breads tested with a lower share of legume seed flour received higher marks in the organoleptic evaluation. In the consumer assessment, the corn-chickpea breads were rated the most favorably. The baking process parameters for all gluten-free breads were similar. With the increased of the share of lentil and chickpea seed flour, the bread volume increased and the quality of crumb porosity improved, and in the case of lentil seed flour it also improved the texture of the bread’s crumb. The tested gluten-free breads, baked from baking blends, contained more protein, especially when pea flour was used, and their energy value was similar to that of corn bread.
KEY WORDA: gluten-free bread, corn flour, chickpea flour, pea flour, lentil flour
- Processed Meat Consumption in Polish Adult Population and The Risk Related to The Intake of Sodium Nitrite (DOI10.15199/65.2022.5.5)
Katarzyna Stoś, Barbara Wojda, Maciej Ołtarzewski 27
Sodium nitrite is used in the production of meat products, mainly to protect them from the contamination of bacteria Clostridium botulinum. The consumption of sodium nitrite in the adult population was estimated on the basis of data on the consumption of processed meat and data on the content of this substance in processed meat products. Pork products constitute nearly 72% of the consumed processed meat, where the average consumption in the group of men was nearly 80 g/person/day, and 30 g/person/day in the group of women. The average intake of the sodium nitrite E 250 from processed meat in the diet of adult Poles was 2 mg NaNO2 /person/day, which is 28.1% of the ADI (acceptable daily intake), and in the „consumers only” group it was 2.6 mg NaNO2/person/day representing 36.4% of the ADI. The intake of E 250 in men consuming the most processed meat (P95) exceeded the ADI values (120%).
KEY WORDA: processed meat, sodium nitrite, intake, exposure
- Effect Of the Addition of Non-Bread Flour (Chestnut, Almond and Oat) On the Quality of Wheat-Rye Bread (DOI10.15199/65.2022.5.6)
Izabella Kwaśniewska-Karolak 31
In order to investigate the effect of non-bread flour additives on the quality of bread, four types of bread were prepared: control wheat-rye, with the addition of chestnut flour, oat flour, and almond flour. For all variants, the following analyses were performed: protein, fat and ash content, bread hardness using the texture profile analysis test, crumb moisture and color, polyphenol content and the efficiency of inactivation of the DPPH radical (EC 50) . Additionally, the efficiency of the process and theoretical calorific value of baked goods were calculated.
Based on the results of the analyzes, it was found that bread with the addition of almond flour had the best properties. Its addition increased the content of protein, fat and minerals. The bread crumb had a light color and structure. The highest antioxidant potential was found for bread with the addition of chestnut flour, which is related to the properties of chestnuts, which show the highest content of polyphenolic compounds among the used additives.
KEY WORDA: bread, non-bread flour, functional food, antioxidant potential
- Active and Intelligent Packaging Materials (DOI10.15199/65.2022.5.7)
Izabela Gajlewicz 36
The interest in the development of intelligent and active packaging materials, especially biodegradable ones, is increasing as food producers try to improve the sustainable development and environmental impact of their products, while maintaining their quality and safety. Active packaging materials contain ingredients that increase their functionality, such as antimicrobials agents, antioxidants, UV stabilizers. Smart packaging materials contain sensing elements that provide an indication of changes in food parameters such as quality, maturity or safety. The article discusses several solutions used in the development of active and intelligent packaging materials in the food industry.
KEY WORDA: packaging, active and smart materials, polymers