Contents 1/2021; Tome 75


  • 2 Food Market and Industry In 2020 – Iwona Szczepaniak, Łukasz Ambroziak, Jadwiga Drożdż, Robert Mroczek (DOI 10.15199/65.2021.1.1)
    • The current production, economic, financial and trade results for 2020 prove that the Polish food industry is quite resistant to the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the whole sector performed, on average, well, the situation differed clearly across sectors. The meat, including poultry, dairy and beverage industries suffered the most. This was mainly the result of the limitation of the activities in the hotel and catering industry (HoReCa) during the lockdown in Poland and in the world. The relatively good results of the food industry during the pandemic is as follows. First, food is a basic necessity and is characterized by lower income elasticity of demand. Secondly, compared to other branches of the manufacturing the food industry, supply chains are shorter and there is less risk of breaking them. Third, Polish food producers and exporters compete in foreign markets mainly on price. Maintaining the good results of the food industry and the high dynamics of exports in the conditions of the ongoing pandemic will be more and more difficult. To a large extent it will depend on adjustment measures undertaken by enterprises and on the economic policy implemented during the crisis.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, production, economic and finance results, prices, foreign trade, COVID-19 pandemic
  • 11 Prospects for The Development of Polish Agri-Food Trade with China – Małgorzata Bułkowska (DOI 10.15199/65.2021.1.2)
    • The aim of the article is to present the current trade relations between Poland and China and to assess the prospects of development of Polish agri-food exports to China. The size of the Chinese economy is the main reason why the largest producers and exporters of agri-food products in the world are competing to enter its market. Polish entrepreneurs also perceive China as one of the most promising sales markets and carry out intensive activities aimed at increasing sales. Despite the efforts made, the exports of agri-food products from Poland to China is still small. Although it reached a record value of EUR 207 million in 2019, it was still only 0.7% of total agri-food export. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic at the end of 2019 caused additional unprecedented p KEY WORDS: Poland, China, agri-food products, foreign trade, COVID-19 pandemic


  • 15 Food Labeling and Advertising in Practice – Marta Zawadka (DOI 10.15199/65.2021.1.3)
    • The article summarizes the issues raised at the Foodie webinar entitled „Food labeling and advertising in practice – workshops on applying the law”, which took place on October 26, 2020. Selected mandatory and voluntary particulars were discussed, the provision of which may be problematic for food business operators responsible for food information. Particular attention was paid to the interpretative doubts that arise when creating a message that is supposed to be on the one hand attractive to consumers and, on the other hand, compliant with the relevant regulations. In the mandatory data section, the issue of the interaction between the different elements of the label, for example the information on ingredients, nutritional values and visual aspects was discussed. The requirements for indicating the origin of the primary ingredient of the product were also discussed. With regard to voluntary information, it was indicated what should be taken into account in order not to mislead the consumer. The issue of health claims was also raised, focusing on the flexibility of their formulation and the scope of application of the provisions on claims.
      KEY WORDS: food labeling, food advertising, mandatory particulars, voluntary information, origin of primary ingredient


  • 19 The Presence and Content of Trans Fatty Acids Isomers in Food Products – Halina Makała (DOI 10.15199/65.2021.1.4)
    • The presence of trans fatty acids (TFA) isomers in food and their effect on health are the subject of many research and discussions in the scientific community. Natural TFA isomers are present in the meat and milk of ruminants (1-11% of all fatty acids) and in their fatty products. Industrial TFA isomers are mainly supplied by partially hydrogenated fats or fats long-term heated at temperatures >200°C, and their highest content is found in confectionery products, hard margarines and salty snacks (even> 40% of the total KT pool). The average consumption of TFA isomers (mainly industrial) in Europe is 1.2-6.7 g daily, while in Poland it is 2.8-6.9 g daily. Due to their negative impact on health, experts recommend that the amount of TFA isomers in the diet should not exceed 2 g per day (1% of the daily energy requirement). In the European Union a limit on the content of industrial TFA isomers in food products – up to 2 g per 100 g of fat – was contributed. There are also the numerous social initiatives aimed at increasing the awareness of the consumers through nutritional education.
      KEY WORDS: trans fatty acids isomers, dietary sources, consumption quantity, health effects


  • 24 Closures in The Food Industry – Izabela Gajlewicz (DOI 10.15199/65.2021.1.5)
    • The constant development of food packaging is related to the growing demands of consumers, strengthening the marketing function or the needs to protect the natural environment. Safe and functional food packaging requires proper closure. The choice of the type of closure largely depends on the type of packaging material and the features of the packed product. Packaging closures include: metal / plastic closures, plugs, caps, lids made of varnished steel sheet, covers or welds. The product should be adequately protected against leaking out of the packaging or the influence of external factors. The materials used for the production of packaging and closures should not react with the product and affect its properties. Moreover, the closures are provided with strips, bridges or membranes, the presence of which guarantees the consumer that the package has not been opened since the product was packed. Closing the packaging more and more often (through the graphic design) plays an advertising and promotional function of the product and brand. Currently, one of the most important aspects, apart from increasing the strength of the packaging, is ecological design.
      KEY WORDS: closure, packaging, cap


  • 23 The Council of the EU wants to introduce an animal welfare food labeling system
  • 23 New report „Logistics 2040” – three scenarios for the future of logistics

27 Every third food company has increased automation