Contents 9/2017; tome 71


  • 6 Stable but Diverse Situation of Sectors in Food Industry – Jadwiga Drożdż, Robert Mroczek (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.9.1)
    • The macroeconomic environment for the development of food industry production in Poland in the recent 2-3 years has been relatively stable. In the years 2014-2016 the value of sold food production (at constant prices) grew an average of approx. 3.5% per year. After several years of decline, in 2015 domestic demand for food and non-alcoholic beverages slightly increased. The dynamics of exports of agri-food products has clearly slowed down. In 2014-2015, food prices on all major food chain levels (producer, processor and trade) declined, while in 2016 this trend was reversed. The financial results of all food sectors in 2016 were positive. In any of them, the economic and financial situation was not threatened, as the level of profitability of both sales and equity was high and the financial condition of enterprises was safe. The fluctuations in profitability ratios that have taken place in the recent years may be worrying, but in 2016 there has been a decrease in the variation between the economic and financial indicators of particular industries. Good economic and financial results in particular industries favored increasing the investment activity of businesses, which undoubtedly helps them compete effectively, not only with price but also with quality, on the demanding international market.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, food, beverages, tobacco products, demand, production, profit
  • 16 Energy Management in Food Processing Plants. Binding legislation and possibilities of financial support – Lesław Janowicz, Janusz Wojdalski, Monika Janowicz, Adam Kupczyk (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.9.2)
    • The factors affecting the energetic efficiency and energy consumption of the production have been presented. The rules of operation of the Energy Management System (EM), which is based on the international standard ISO 50001, have been clarified. The system allows to reduce costs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Introduction of the Energy Management System in accordance with ISO 50001 requires the development of a company’s energy policy and the identification of sites of use for energy resources. Energy monitoring systems enable to create daily profiles of actual energy consumption and compare it with the theoretical demand of the plant under the study or other plants of the same industry. The stages of project management and possibilities of financing of the environmental solutions have been presented.
      KEY WORDS: energy management, energy efficiency, benchmarking, production costs


  • 24 Water Footprint as a Water Consumption Index in Agriculture and Food Industry – Magdalena Wróbel-Jędrzejewska, Urszula Stęplewska, Elżbieta Polak (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.9.3)
    • The aspects of water usage by the agricultural and food sector and the need to provide water to ensure the safe and healthy food production was presented in the paper. The environmental indicator: water footprint (WF) was characterized. The WF values for specific foods were indicated. The need to change the approach and actions to reduce water consumption by the food industry were signaled. New water law and its consequences in the mentioned industry were discussed. The act regulates water administration in accordance with the principle of sustainable development, in particular the structure, management and protection of water resources and water usage.
      KEY WORDS: water footprint, carbon footprint, water law
  • 32 Contamination of Chocolate with Compounds of Cadmium on the Polish Market. Legal Regulations – Danuta Rogala, Ilona Hajok, Renata Baranowska, Anna Spychała, Klaudia Gut (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.9.4)
    • Chocolate is a rich source of nutrients and minerals. However, as a result of technological processes and depending on the type of cocoa beans used in the manufacture process, chocolate products can be contaminated with heavy metals such as cadmium. The aim of the study was to determine whether the consumption of chocolate can increase the exposure of the consumers to cadmium compounds. An analysis of the concentration of cadmium in chocolates with varying content of cocoa liquor with consideration legal acts regulating the cadmium content in chocolate products was carried out. The material were 50 bars of chocolate, manufactured in Poland; these chocolates were grouped according to the content of cocoa solids into three categories: 30-43% (19 samples), 60-70% (21 samples) and 90% (10 samples). The concentration of cadmium inside the chocolate samples were marked with a spectrometer. The results were compared with the maximum levels of cadmium in chocolate products. The concentration of cadmium in the analyzed samples varied and depended on the amount of cocoa solids inside the chocolate. In the chocolate group containing 90% cocoa solids, the concentration of cadmium was high. The lowest concentration was determined in the group with the lowest chocolate solids (30-43%). Estimated exposure assessment has shown that the cadmium content in chocolates manufactured in Poland does not constitute a serious threat to the health of consumers. Concentrations of cadmium in chocolates depend on the content of cocoa solids and according to the latest legal regulations, the determined cadmium content does not endanger the health of children.
      KEY WORDS: cadmium, chocolate, cocoa solids, regulations
  • 40 Heavy Metals (Lead, Cadmium and Mercury) and Tin in Seafood Canned Products. Risk Assessment – Agnieszka Leszczuk-Piankowska, Piotr J. Bykowski (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.9.5)
    • Environment pollution like heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) and pollution indicating packaging quality (tin) have a direct impact on human health because of fish and seafood product consumption. In this article, the level of toxic substance in canned seafood was established and considering tolerable weekly intake for each heavy metal safety of canned food available on Polish market was verified. During monitoring period of 2014-2016 there were 129 batches investigated for lead, cadmium and mercury residues and 119 batches for tin residues. None of the sample exceeded law permissible levels for toxic substances. Based on received results canned seafood available on Polish market safety was proven.  It was established that people can consume, without toxic effect from lead, cadmium and mercury, 73,3 kg of canned seafood, 46 kg and 3,3 kg respectively.
      KEY WORDS: canned fish product, hazard, heavy metals, tin


  • 44 Lipids in Food, Nutrition and Human Health. Part II. Nutritional and Health Aspects – Joanna Ciborska, Jan Kłobukowski, Filip Kłobukowski (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.9.6)
    • Nutritional and physiological functions of alimentary lipids in human organism were discussed in the paper. The organism fat requirement and real recommendations of intake were characterized. The significance in increasing the level of people suffering from civilisation diseases (cardiovascular diseases, arteriosclerosis, cancer diseases) were presented.
      KEY WORD: lipids, nutritional recommendations, civilisation diseases
  • 54 Products for Qualified Tourist. Opportunity for New Markets – Justyna Kadzińska, Stanisław Kalisz, Karolina Końsko
    • The market of products for qualified tourists is still growing. The number of producers of this kind of food is relatively small. Consumers’ expectations should always be the starting point for creating various new products. Tourist food is a group of products which ought to meet specific requirements. It should have a long shelf-life, be lightweight, comfortable to use and of high nutritive value. The most often offered form of tourist food are lyophilisates. This type of food is available in several categories such as meat, fish and vegetarian products. People who buy tourist food are usually interested in hiking and biking . The most popular category of tourist food are dinner dishes. Tourist food is mainly distributed via the Internet and sports shops. Qualified tourists expect the wider range of tourist food products. They are interested in products of high quality even if it related to a higher price. Personalizing this type food to the needs of qualified tourists and its promoting among consumers, gives the chances for new markets.
      KEY WORDS: qualified tourism, survey research, functional foods


  • 58 Modified Gelatin Structures as an Alternative Material for Food Packaging. Testing of Thermo-Physical and Mechanical Properties – Łukasz Prazner, Halina Podsiadło, Katarzyna Kozłowicz (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.9.7)
    • In the paper, the attempts to obtain modified gelatin structures for food packaging were described. After previous preparation, gels were subjected to lyophilisation process and then, their thermo-physical properties were tested. Starch crisps, as being obtained during extrusion process, were the structure-modifying addictive. The extruded XPS polystyrene, which is currently used in production of packages for food industry, was employed as a comparative material in thermal conductivity and diffusivity tests and in the tensile strength test.
      KEY WORDS: gelatin, lyophilization, thermo-physical and mechanical properties, packaging, food products