Contents 9/2016; tome 70

Przemysł Spożywczy 9/2016ECONOMY

  • 2 Transnational Corporations in the Polish Food Industry – Piotr Chechelski
    • The article presents the analysis of the impact of transnational corporations on the Polish food industry in the years 2003- 2014 under the globalization process. The degree (level) of their globalization was determined and the changes caused by transnational corporations in the structure of the food industry in the past decade were evaluated. In the sectors of the food industry with a very high level of globalization and the high presence of corporations, their share generally increased, while in the sectors with a low level of globalization was decreased, especially in the recent years.
      KEY WORDS: transnational corporations, food industry, globalization
  • 12 Idea of Sustainable Development and Corporate Responsibility. Trends and Challenges – Alicja Krzepicka
    • Sustainable development is a process in which the current generation’s needs may be satisfied without diminishing the future generations’ chances to satisfy their needs. The idea of Corporate Responsibility is a specific way of improving the company’s functioning, which may bring direct and easily noticeable effects. Thus, the strategy of Corporate Responsibility should be a fundament of a particular company’s sustainable development. The purpose of the article is to show that the Corporate Responsibility and sustainable development constitute an element which is coherent with a company’s business activity. The application of the principles of Corporate Responsibility and the sustainable development in the company may motivate and inspire for implementation of innovative solutions, development of new products or new undertakings. Company actions, as observed on the Polish grounds indicate that CR is mainly implemented in respect of building relations with local communities through social involvement programmes or a bigger care of the environment. Companies are paying also more and more attention to diffusing information about the activities within ECSR (Ecological Corporate Social Responsibility).
      KEY WORDS: sustainable development, corporate responsibility, ecology


  • 16 New Foods. Registration Procedure during the Transition Period – Grażyna Osęka, Jowita Prokop
    • Food industry is a highly innovative sector of the market. Consumers expect new products with the improved composition and properties. One way to achieve dominating position in the food industry is to introduce the so-called novel foods, i.e. foods not commonly present on the food market of the European Union before 1997. This type of food, however, requires the prior registration. Authorization procedures are complicated and stretched in time. Going to meet the challenges of the market, the Member States and bodies of the European Union amended the procedure for approval of novel food and replaced the old regulation (Regulation No 258/97/EC) with new legislation (Regulation of the European Commission and of the Parliament 2015/2283). In theory, the change is expected to shorten and simplify procedures, but the details of the new procedure and its application in practice could hamper the implementation of the assumed goals. In addition, the weakening of copyright protection of costly research necessary to put the innovative product or ingredient on the market can discourage many entrepreneurs to submit an application for authorization of the new products.
      KEY WORDS: novel food, authorization procedure, innovations, European Union law


  • 21 Interruption of Cold Chain and the Quality of Food – Joanna Markowska, Elżbieta Polak
    • Many modern technologies of food preservation require a reduced temperature during the production, storage and transport of food. It is essential to select of the optimum temperature for the different product groups and to limit its fluctuations to a minimum at all stages of the cold chain, from raw material to consumption of the product. The article presents issues related to elements of the conditions for storage, transport and distribution of food in the cycle of the cold chain. On this background, the selected issues concerning the changes in the quality, appearance and sensory characteristics of products, resulting from the fact of temperature stability preservation failure have been presented.
      KEY WORDS: Cold chain, temperature monitoring, chilled and frozen foods
  • 32 The Influence of the Chosen Stabilizers on Limitation of Recrystallization in Ice Cream of Sorbet Type – Anna Kamińska-Dwórznicka, Katarzyna Samborska, Ewa Gondek, Ewa Jakubczyk
    • The aim of the present paper was to evaluate and compare the effect of stabilizing mixtures on the run of recrystallization process in strawberry sorbet directly after preparation and after a month of storage at -18ºC, using a microscope and a Nikon camera adapted to take pictures at the temperature below zero. The images were then analyzed, using NIS Elements D program to determine equivalent ice crystals’ diameters. In the present study, gelatin, guar gum, xanthan, locust bean gum, κ – carrageenan, alcohol, and natural protective protein, called AFP and the mixtures of stabilizers under the trade name CRE were used as stabilizing additives. It was found that the addition of AFP (in combination with gelatin and guar gum) and CRE mixture inhibited most effectively the recrystallization process and the ice crystals after one month of storage did not exceed 15 μm.
      KEY WORDS: sorbet, stabilizer, recrystallization
  • 36 Ultrasounds – Alternative Technique of Food Examination and Support of Food Processing – Andrzej Wesołowski, Ewa Siemianowska, Krystyna A. Skibniewska, Jolanta Sienkiewicz
    • Dynamic development of food industry generates demand for new techniques, supporting food processing, indispensable for quick and precise inspection of the process. Possibilities of applying ultrasounds in food industry are very wide, anyway underestimated. Depending on their power and frequency, ultrasounds may cause modification of the product or, due to a high penetrability, may deliver information essential for quality control. The paper presents the selected applications of ultrasound techniques in food industry published during the last decade.
      KEY WORDS: ultrasounds, food processing, non-destructive methods
  • 39 Valuable Properties of Fish as a Problem in Processing – Mariusz Szymczak, Barbara Szymczak
    • The article describes the nutritive qualities of fish, the consumption of which in Poland and in the world is constantly increasing. They include mainly easily digestible proteins and lipids, and a high content of vitamins and minerals. Many of the advantages of raw fish which attract the consumers are simultaneously the cause of fish spoilage and problems with their processing. In this paper, we list and characterize the eight most important reasons for a rapid spoilage of fish, mainly related to their chemical composition, but also to the methods of their processing. In addition, the paper provides examples and negative physical, chemical and microbiological effects resulting from incorrect trade and processing. It was observed that little knowledge and preferences of consumers during choosing fish products encourage the use of processes that reduce the value of these products.
      KEY WORDS: fish, nutritional value, spoilage, fish processing
  • 43 The Influence of Cocoa Butter on Survival of Probiotic Bacteria after Spray Drying and after Incubation in Low pH Conditions – Małgorzata Mizielińska, Wioletta Krawczyńska, Alicja Fedorowicz, Katarzyna Sobecka
    • Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells have been encapsulated using spray drying method. Starch containing 10% of cocoa butter was used as immobilization carrier (first time used as carrier in probiotics’ spray drying). Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria was performed in a laboratory-scale spray dryer at constant air inlet temperature of 180°C and 130°C and outlet temperature of 65°C and 55°C, with feed flow of 290 mL/h. The results of the study demonstrated that cocoa butter protected the bacterial cells against high temperatures during drying and against low pH. The lowest decrease (< 1 log) of the viability of L. rhamnosus after drying with 130°C inlet temperature was noticed. The lowest decrease of the number of microorganisms after incubation in low pH conditions was determined for the samples dried in 130°C as well.
      KEY WORDS: spray drying, cocoa butter, Lactobacillus rhamnosus
  • 46 Lactic Acid Bacteria with Antifungal Properties. Biological Food Preservation – Urszula Błaszczyk, Paweł Satora
    • Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce antagonistic compounds that can control the growth of unwanted food spoilage microorganisms. Most studies of the antimicrobial activity of the LAB focused on their antibacterial action. It is known, however, that properly selected LAB strains can inhibit the growth of toxinogenic filamentous fungi and mycotoxin biosynthesis, extend the shelf-life of certain products and reduce the risk of the negative effects of mycotoxins on human health. The use of LAB to reduce growth of mould may be an interesting alternative to physical and chemical methods of extending the food stability. Another valuable property of certain strains of LAB is the ability to bind mycotoxins, leading to reduced bioavailability of secondary metabolites of mould, which can become in the future, the new solution for detoxification of food and feed.
      KEY WORDS: lactic acid bacteria, antifungal activity, mycotoxin binding


  • 49 How to optimize storage costs?
  • 50 Counterfeit spirits and wines in the EU. 1.3 billion loss a year