Contents 9/2015

Przemysł Spożywczy 9/2015

ECONOMY

  • 2 Chinese Food Market and the Chances for Distribution for Polish Products – Blanka Gołębiowska
    • After opening of China to the world in 1978, the food market and structure of consumption have changed. The European producers and exporters need to monitor the situation and quickly adapt to the needs of the Chinese consumer. Polish food products are already present at stores in Beijing and Shanghai; they are becoming more recognizable all over China. The Chinese consumers should associate the promotion of the reliable “Polish Brand” with diverse, healthy agri-food products. However, it requires consistency and long-term actions, inter alia by presenting their national stands during the fairs held in China.
      KEY WORDS: China, agri-food market, export, Polish products’ promotion
  • 6 Phytosanitary Conditions of Export of Vegetables and Fruits to the People’s Republic of China – Agnieszka Sahajdak
  • 8 The Indicators of the Food Industry Impact on the Environment – Magdalena Wróbel-Jędrzejewska, Urszula Stęplewska, Elżbieta Polak
    • The indicators characterizing the negative impact of anthropogenic activities on the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere have been presented in this paper. Environmental footprints: carbon (CF), water (WF) and ecological (EF) ones, were characterized. The importance of estimating the environmental indicators in the agricultural and food industry has been pointed out. The basic advantages and disadvantages of these parameters have been shown.
      KEY WORDS: carbon footprint, water footprint, ecological footprint

 TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 12 The New Refrigerants and Changes in the Construction of Refrigeration Systems. Part 1 – Rafał Andrzejczyk, Tomasz Muszyński, Blanka Jakubowska
    • The article contains some considerations concerning the predicted changes in the design and technology of new refrigeration equipment. The authors describe the most important legislative changes that led to the withdrawal or recall of well-known synthetic refrigerants from HCFC and HFC group and their replacement with natural agents and new substances from the group of HFO. In the first part of the text, some reflections on the possibilities of wider use of well-known natural substances such as ammonia (R717), propane (R290), isobutane (R600a) in cooling technology have been presented. The basic advantages and disadvantages of such direction of development of refrigeration have been discussed.
      KEY WORDS: ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, natural refrigerants, synthetic refrigerants
  • 16 Psychrotrophs – Still Current Problem in the Cool Storage of Food – Dorota Zielińska, Aleksandra Ołdak, Anna Rzepkowska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska
    • The rapid development of the ready to eat food, requiring cool storage, has contributed to the increase of infections, caused by the „new” psychrotrophic food pathogens, i.e.: Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica. In this paper, the risks associated with these pathogens, needs and possibilities of their detection in food and the environment around production were discussed. From among the methods, we can distinguish culture methods (classical method of inoculation and an alternative method of using chromogenic substrates), as well as alternative – culture-independent methods, i.e.: real-time PCR, ELISA, FISH and others. Alternative methods require validation each time and most of them are just as sensitive as the classic method, the protocol time often far is shortened (from 4-7 days to 24 hours), what is very important in food production. However, some of these modern methods still require refining and validation.
      KEY WORDS: psychrotrophic, detection methods, Listeria, Yersinia
  • 21 Food Storage in a Modified Atmosphere – Joanna Markowska, Iwona Kasprzyk, Elżbieta Polak
    • The search for new technological solutions enrolling in the trends of production of safe food, which retains freshness for long and resembles most closely the fresh products, has led the industry to improve the methods for storing and packaging the products. The development of modified atmosphere packaging MAP helps to reduce losses associated with deterioration of food, as well as to reach a wider range of the consumers. This technology allows packing both fresh products and processed ones, thereby reducing the amount of harmful substances added to food preservation.
      KEY WORDS: modified atmosphere packaging, MAP, food packaging, food storage
  • 30 Trends in Gluten-Free Bread Technology – Elżbieta Dłużewska, Katarzyna Marciniak-Łukasiak
    • In the paper, the celiac disease and the gluten-free diet, as being required in the case of the celiac disease have been characterized. The existing raw materials and food products, containing gluten-related proteins as well as gluten-free products were discussed. The results of the newest studies, concerning the replacement of gluten with such additives as hydrocolloids, enzymes and dietary fiber in baking technology, have been presented. The possibilities of improving the nutritive value of gluten-free products were indicated. The benefits, resulting from the application of high hydrostatic pressures for modification of the gluten-free raw ingredients have been presented.
      KEY WORDS: coeliac disease, gluten-free bread, gluten-free raw materials, transglutaminase
  • 34 Substances of Natural Origin in Food Preservation – Alina Kunicka-Styczyńska, Agnieszka Tyfa
    • Essential oils, plant extracts and hydrosols can constitute valuable food ingredients not only due to their organoleptic qualities, but also the antimicrobial activity. Substances derived from herb plants and spices inhibit development of the saprophytic microorganisms and exert the cidal effect on them as well as on majority of food-borne pathogens. The presented review shows the examples of the plant-originating substances’ utilization in microbiological stabilization and preservation of meat, fruits, vegetables, their products and of dairy products. Limitations of their use and the perspectives in food products’ application were discussed.
      KEY WORDS: natural preservatives, essential oils, hydrosols, food

 FOOD – FEEDING

  • 38 Food Processing and the Organic Food Market in Poland – Grażyna Cacak-Pietrzak
    • The subject of this article is to describe the legal regulations concerning the use of raw materials, food additives, processing aids and processing methods, applied in the organic food processing plants. The article presents the statistical data concerning the number, location and production profile of the Polish organic food processing plants. The article describes the organic food labelling requirements as well as presents the current situation in the Polish organic food market.
      KEY WORDS: organic food, processing methods, the organic food labelling, the organic food market
  • 41 Acetic Acid as a Component of Functional Food – Hubert Antolak, Dorota Kręgiel
    • Products containing acetic acid may constitute an interesting kind of functional foods, getting recognition in the eyes of consumers. Traditional vinegar is the product, obtained by a two-step process: the alcoholic fermentation followed by biosynthesis (alcohol oxidation) using acetic acid bacteria. Particular health relevance is attributed to wine vinegars, produced in the countries famous for the tradition of winemaking, and to rice vinegars constituting the spices in Asian countries, and to fruit vinegars, being especially popular in African countries. Application of the products containing vinegars in daily diet brings many benefits, from improving the metabolism, decrease of appetite and lowering of blood pressure, and even limitation the incidence of cancer.
      KEY WORDS: vinegars, kombucha tea, functional food
  • 45 Lead and Arsenic in Food – Monika Mania, Małgorzata Rebeniak, Tomasz Szynal
    • The paper presents the current legal status in the field of food contamination with lead and arsenic and planned from January 2016 changes to the relevant legislation and introduction of new requirements. The changes in the EU legislation and the General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Food and Feed (GSCTFF) in the light of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the Expert Committee of the European Commission on environmental and industrial contaminants, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the Codex Alimentarius Committee on Contaminants in Foods regarding to lead and inorganic arsenic were discussed in details.
      KEY WORDS: lead, inorganic arsenic, maximum permissible levels, foodstuffs