Contents 9/2014

Przemysł Spożywczy 9/2014ECONOMY

  • 2 The Consequences of the Embargo, as Imposed on Import of Agri-Food Products to Russia – Łukasz Ambroziak, Iwona Szczepaniak
    • The aim of the article is to assess the potential consequences of embargo, imposed on agri-food imports to Russia, inter alias, from the European Union. Russia is an important market for food from the EU countries, especially from Poland. In 2013, more than 6% of Polish agri-food exports reached Russia, which was the third largest market for Polish food. The research results show that the embargo will result in the food surplus of 0.8-0.9 billion EUR per year on the Polish market, mostly consisting of fruits and vegetables, meat, and dairy products. It might be difficult to sell these products on the domestic market due to a limited growth of its absorptivity. The diversification process of foreign markets for the Polish food might be also more challenging, since the imposed embargo will lead to the global supply of agri-food products. In addition, the strong current competitive position of Poland in exports to the EU countries could also weaken.
      KEY WORDS: exports, agri-food products, Poland, Russia, embargo


  • 10 Cooling and Freezing Technologies in Food Processing – Joanna Markowska, Elżbieta Polak, Iwona Kasprzyk
    • From among the methods of food preservation, refrigeration occupies the priority position. This preservation technique enables the maintenance of the original characteristics and properties of food. The article presents the issues related to refrigeration techniques and frozen storage of the products. Against this background, the selected issues related to modern technical solutions, used in processing, have been presented.
      KEY WORDS: cooling, freezing, food processing
  • 16 Frozen Food Packaging – Characteristics, Review, Standards and Provisions – Beata Grabowska
    • Lowering the temperature is important in modern technology of food preservation because it prolongs the shelf life of practically all raw materials and food products. The quality and stability of frozen and chilled foods is primarily dependent on the quality of the raw material, but also on the pretreatment methods of freezing, the type of protective packaging, etc. Maintaining values of quality frozen products is the most important goal of packaging in the food industry. The packaging industry in the recent years has been developing very intensively, and is associated mainly with technical advances in the food industry, economic development, and advanced technology. As a result, new generations of packages allow us to maintain and even improve the quality of the packaged product. Overview of the characteristics and packaging, as employed in frozen food packaging technology, frozen products and packaging requirements, outlined by Polish Standards and regulations (i.e. regulations, laws and directives) was presented.
      KEY WORDS: industrial, package, food, freezing, cooling


  • 20 Pallet Market in Poland 2013 – Adam Wojciechowski
    • In each supply chain, the pallets are used, as means for carrying the loads. The following pallets are employed: flat, bar, box and specialized ones. In the food industry, the EUR- type pallets are most commonly used. For nearly 50 years, there were usually produced EUR pallets, based on the UIC card. The paper presents the market for these pallets in Poland over the years, the size of production and the changes that have occurred in the market in terms of their production.
      KEY WORDS: warehouse, storage, works transport, pallets, flat pallets
  • 26 Modern Marketing and Food Packaging. Part II – Joanna Kuzincow
    • In part I of the article (published in no 8/2014 of “Food Industry”), there was presented a significant role of packaging in marketing and the evolution of communication strategies of well known food brands, from the very beginning of their creation when the image or promotional motto (slogan) were dominating, until the contemporary time when the package of the product becomes often the basis for marketing communication. Part II of the article contains the presentation of most modern world marketing trends such as minimalism, individualism, interactivity, emotions and, finally, sustainable development and environmental protection which are distinctly reflected in design of the packages. The future of the packages in the light of all mentioned marketing trends has been also discussed.
      KEY WORDS: modern marketing, packaging in marketing, food packaging


  • 32 Simplified Front of Package Nutrition Labelling – Aleksandra Wesołowska
    • The new Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council no 1169/2011 on the provision of Food Information to Consumers allows the application of additional nutrition labelling on the front of the food package. The article explains what conditions should be satisfied before a simplified front of pack scheme can be put on a food label. Additionally, an overview of front of pack labeling schemes existing on the EU market is presented. The article also contains interpretation suggestions and information regarding the recent European discussions on the British hybrid front of package nutrition labelling scheme.
      KEY WORDS: simplified front of package labelling schemes, Guideline Daily Amounts, Reference Intakes, “Keyhole” logo, Choices logo, Finnish “heart symbol”, hybrid labelling scheme


  • 38 Organic and Conventional Vegetables. Comparison of the Quality – Anna Wlazły, Monika Pytka, Anna Stój, Bożena Sosnowska
    • The article discusses the concept of organic food as well as it presents a comparison of quality of the vegetables from the organic production and vegetables from the conventional production. Various studies, as carried out in Poland and around the world have shown that organic vegetables in most cases are superior to conventional vegetables in terms of the content of phenolic compounds, vitamin C, sugars and minerals. It is not a rule, however, as the result is often affected by type of the cultivated vegetable. Organic vegetables contain less nitrates and pesticides, so it makes them more attractive to the consumer. On the grounds of the so-far conducted studies, it is difficult to determine which vegetables contain lower quantities of heavy metals as they are absorbed by the plants from many sources.
      KEY WORDS: organic vegetables, quality, conventional food, ecological agriculture
  • 41 Health Promoting Properties of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) – Tomasz Czernecki, Aneta Brodziak, Anna Stój
    • In the recent years, the bioactive food components and food with programmed health properties are indicated as one of the elements of diet therapy and crucial factor of health prevention. For this reason, the intensive work aimed at searching the plants with special health-promoting properties that can find a permanent place in the human diet are carried out. One of these plants can become stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), which is currently used as a substitute of sweeteners. In the article, the health promoting properties of stevia, which can be used in the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, obesity, hypertension or dental caries, are discussed. A few years ago, the use of stevia and its glycosides in food was forbidden. Nowadays, they are considered to be safe for human and as marked as E 960, they may be used in 31 different categories of food, including beverages, desserts, confectionery and sweeteners. Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for stevia is 4 mg per 1 kg of body weight daily.
      KEY WORDS: Stevia rebaudiana, bioactive components, health promoting properties, additional substance
  • 45 Identification and Evaluation of the Selected Food Products. Consumer Criteria – Mariola Grzybowska-Brzezińska
    • The main objective of the study was to identify and evaluate food products that determine consumer choices. To achieve the main objective of the study, data mining research was conducted, which identified the main technological and market criteria of the selected food products. The second stage of the study included collection of opinions concerning consumers’ behavior on the market of the discussed products. To gather information, direct interview method was applied using a standardized questionnaire. The results allowed verifying the following theses: consumer quality parameters that determine food products’ choices are mainly technological in nature; consumer confidence in the information provided on the label of a food product is determined by the reputation of its manufacturer’s brand.
      KEY WORDS: consumer behavior, consumer food quality