Contents 9/2013

Przemysł Spożywczy 9/2013TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 2 Revolutions in Refrigerants – Michał Dobrzyński
    • This article presents the current status of development of the new legislation on synthetic refrigerants (HCFCs and HFCs). In Poland, the law is being prepared, which will implement the EU Regulation No 842/2006 on F-gases and Regulation No 1005/2009 on substances that deplete the ozone layer. In particular, the new Polish law will regulate issues of certification of personnel and companies involved in the refrigeration and air conditioning. However, the European Parliament in Brussels is working on a revision of the present F-gas law. The new European legislation will impose revolutionary regulations.
      KEY WORDS: F-gas, fl uorinated greenhouse gas, freon, refrigerant, ozone, PROZON
  • 10 Uncontrolled Emissions of the Working Medium from Refrigeration Systems – Urszula Stęplewska, Magdalena Wróbel-Jędrzejewska
    • During uncontrolled emission to the atmosphere, refrigerants may cause damages resulting not only from operational disturbances of installation. These emissions may also be a reason for health problems or death, product or property damages and negative impact on the environment of our planet. The analysis of risk resulting from application of refrigerants was discussed. Refrigerants’ analysis in terms of an uncontrolled leak risk was performed. Methods of refrigerant emission detection were discussed. The monitoring systems were characterized. Critical elements for the proper operation of these systems were identified. The important parameters of the sensor include selectivity, fast reaction time and responses to established detection levels. The properties of the refrigerant, levels of detection concentrations and kind of protected area have an impact on the proper selection and location of sensors. The model sensor response during gas emission was presented. The influence of temperature on detector was discussed. Consideration of safety of industrial refrigerators and cold rooms is an important problem.
      KEY WORDS: refrigerants, emission detection, monitoring systems
  • 16 – The Refrigerating Chambers Employed in Food Storage – Joanna Markowska, Elżbieta Polak, Iwona Kasprzyk
    • Currently refrigeration plays a key role in food supply, protecting the output quality of the food, which results in providing consumers a safe and healthy products. Storage in a cooling chambers takes from many years a prominent place among the ways of preservation of agricultural products and ready-made food. This article presents an overview of the technical issues relating to colling storage. Against this background, presents some issues related to the new technologies used in colling storage of fruits and vegetables.
      KEY WORDS: cooling chambers, fruits, vegetables, storage


  • 22 Production and Exports of Frozen Fruits and Vegetables – Bożena Nosecka
    • As regards the production of fruit and vegetable products the position of frozen fruits and vegetables is getting stronger. On the other hand, the importance of both of the product groups in exports is declining. On the market of frozen fruits such situation reflects mainly a downward tendency in the export of frozen strawberries and on the market of frozen vegetables – from growing internal consumption. In the 2012/13 season, volume as well as value of the export of frozen fruits and vegetable reached a record level. Both producers and exporters took the advantage of shortages on the European market. The record level resulted from a substantial increase in demand for Polish frozen raspberries and cherries. In the 2013/14 season, the production as well as exports of majority of frozen fruits is expected to increase. Despite lower crop, the export of frozen vegetables is also expected to increase. An upward tendency in the exports of frozen fruits and vegetables is forecast to remain in the next few years. The increase is the most likely in the case of frozen raspberries.
      KEY WORDS: frozen fruits, frozen vegetables, export, seasons 2011/2012-2013/2014
  • 26 Organic Farming in Poland and all Over the World – Grażyna Cacak-Pietrzak
    • Organic farming is the most human friendly agricultural production system. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in this method of farming. This paper presents a conventional production system and the consequences of its widespread use. The origins of organic farming, the main aims and objectives, applicable laws, including the control and certification system are discussed. The latest statistical data concerning the number of organic farms and the area of organic farming in Poland and in the world are presented.
      KEY WORDS: organic farming, regulations, certification, organic agricultural land
  • 32 Good Agriculture Practices GAP in Production of Food Raw Materials of Plant and Animal Origin – Waldemar Dzwola
    • GlobalGAP standards form a set of good agriculture practices with a very wide range of requirements including not only production of food raw materials but also some areas of protecting of natural environment as well as occupational and health safety. In article some fundamental GAPs elements relating to crops and livestock were presented and some exemplary codes on GAP developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) FAO/ WHO were listed. In the paper, a structure of actual GlobalGAP standards was shown and some basic working documents including checklists, control points and compliance criteria were characterized. In the article, the categorization of requirements and fundamentals of GlobalGAP certification was also described.
      KEY WORDS: good practices, GAP, primary production, food quality, food safety, GlobalGAP
  • 36 Assortment Optimization in Food Companies During Crisis – Hanna Górska-Warsewicz
    • The aim of this study was to identify the optimization strategies in relation to productive assortment of food companies in crisis situations. The special attention was given to six analytical areas including optimization of size of assortment, optimization of product brand relation and product-market relation, optimization of new products and double brands’ development as well as optimization based on product meaning in portfolio assortment. The presented strategies of the assortment optimization has a character of an expert evaluation prepared based on author’s long-term observation and research in the range of food management in food companies.
      KEY WORDS: assortment structure, optimization strategies, product-brand relation, product-market relation


  • 41 Don’t Waste Food – Think Ecologically – Maria Gosiewska
    • The Act called „junk act” drew attention of Poles to content of wastes that arise in households. These include a biowaste, which is a variety of food wastes such as raw and processed fruit and vegetables, meat, meat or cheese, etc. The European Commission warns that the amount of food wasted by consumers and food industry in 2020 in Europe will increase from 89 million to 126 million tones. It has a significant impact on environment, because food production uses a lot of natural resources. Meanwhile, food waste means also water and energy waste. Production of 1 t of food products causes the release of 4.2 t CO2 into the atmosphere. However, food waste prevention should begin from preventing their production, via reduction of losses in food industry and households, donation of food to charity or for processing into animal feed.
      KEY WORDS: food, losses, waste, prevent, ecology, food banks


  • 46 Public Health and a Free Movement of Goods. Legal Regulations of GMOs – Iwona Wrześniewska-Wal
    • The development of the life sciences, as performing in the recent times, allows a man to correct nature, which in his opinion is not quite perfect and not quite his subordinate. A perfect example of crossing the next frontier of scientific knowledge by man includes undoubtedly genetically modified organisms (GMOs). On the Polish market, as well as in the whole European Union, only seven types of genetically modified organisms are approved for marketing. They are: cotton, corn, potatoes, sugar beets, canola (rape), soy and microorganisms.
      KEY WORDS: food, control, GMO


  • 49 Active and Intelligent Food Contact Materials. Legislation and European Commission Guidelines – Marzena Pawlicka, Maria Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Jacek Postupolski
    • The article presents the requirements to be met by active and intelligent materials intended to come into contact with food in accordance with current European Union legislation. The article discusses the specific requirements, including the procedure for obtaining the EU authorization of substances which constitute the components of active materials or articles including the current time frame, labelling and documentation requirements – the declaration of compliance and supporting documents.
      KEY WORDS: food packaging, active and intelligent materials, EFSA, European Union list