Contents 9/2008

przemysł spożywczy okladka nr 9/2008


  • 2 Market of Frozen Fruit and Vegetables in Poland – Bożena Nosecka
    • Since the middle of the 90s the production of frozen vegetables in Poland has been dynamically increasing. In the recent years, the share of export in the production of those preserves is falling due to increasing consumption on the domestic market. The dynamics of the frozen fruit production is slower. The share of export in the production is changeable and results from the relation export prices to domestic prices. In the last years the direct consumption of frozen fruit is not changing, but the demand on them with the aim to apply them in manufacture of jams and dairy products is increasing. Retail prices and export prices of frozen fruit are not showing any upward tendency, but the prices of frozen vegetables on the European and domestic market are increasing. In the nearest future the production, consumption and prices of frozen vegetables are expected to show an upward tendency.
      KEY WORDS: frozen fruits and vegetables, production, export, import, consumption
  • 8 Energy Drinks and 8 Their Functional Ingredients – Monika Hoffmann, Franciszek Świderski
    • Energy drinks are dietary foods which are designed to improve organism’s performance and to regenerate cognitive and physiological abilities. Consumption of energy drinks increases in the last years, particularly among young people exposed to active and stressful style of life. Main bioactive components of energy drinks are coffeine, taurine, inositol, glucuronolactone and carnitine. Physiological activity of these compounds is still investigated but cognitive and physiological effects of energy drinks consumption are well documented. Benefits of appropriate intake include stimulation of the nervous system, reduction of reaction times, improvement of cognitive functions and raising of psychological and physical organism endurance.
      KEY WORDS: energy drinks, coffeine, bioactive ingredients
  • 14 The Changes of Agricultural Products and Retail Prices in European Union – Agnieszka Judzińska
    • The prices of agri-food products in the EU showed a constant increase in recent years. The scope of increase in food prices in the new member countries (EU-12) was much higher than in the EU-15. Nevertheless the rise in food prices in Poland was much lower then in other EU-12. The prices of crop products grew much faster than the prices of livestock products and processed products. The higher increase concerned the prices of fruits and vegetables and in 2007 also the prices of cereals.
      KEY WORDS: prices of agricultural products, increase of prices, retail prices


  • 24 Methods of Limiting Crystallization of Ice in Freezing Process – Anna Kamińska, Piotr P. Lewicki
    • The growth of ice crystals, taking place during freezing process and process of recrystallization, occurring during storage, have a significant effect on the quality of frozen foods. Big crystals may destroy tissue structure of certain products what affects the level of leakage during thawing (losses of nutrients) and causes unfavourable changes in the appearance. In the paper, the methods of controlling ice crystals’ growth during freezing and during frozen storage were discussed. Characteristics and the examples of application of substances, being specified as ice crystallization- limiting proteins (antifreeze proteins – AFPs) were also described.
      KEY WORDS: freezing, crystallization, ice recrystallization, AFPs, AFGP
  • 32 The Temperature of Glass Transition – Factor of Food Stability – Zbigniew Pałacha, Iwona Sitkiewicz
    • Glass transition is one of the most important phenomena in the amorphous substance and leads to the drastic changes of their characteristic. This transition with the respect to the food ingredients helps, together with concept of water activity, in understanding the complex changes when food’s water content and temperature are changed. In this work, the concept of glass transition and the methods of the glass transition temperature measurement have been presented as well as the state diagram was discussed what allows determining the state of the food as well as foreseeing its storage stability at a given temperature.
      KEY WORDS: glass transition, glass transition temperature, amorphous substance, storage stability
  • 44 Frozen Herbs – Are They Better Than The Dried Ones? – Paulina Jakowienko, Barbara Wójcik-Stopczyńska
    • Freezing is a relatively new method of herb materials’ preservation. There is an opinion that this method allows better maintaining organoleptic features of herbs compared to other methods, however, medical activity of herbs declines. In the article, an influence of preliminary treatment, freezing, and freeze-storage on vitamin C and phenols’ content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity as well as microbial quality of herb-spice materials was presented. The above items are commonly studied, dried herbs regarding, whereas the evaluation of quality and properties of frozen herbs needs further examination.
      KEY WORDS: frozen herbs, preservation of herbs, microbiological quality of frozen herbs


  • 47 Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) – forgotten plant – Andrzej Gasik, Marta Mitek
    • The article gives a characteristics of cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.) and their applicability to processing. Cornelian cherry fruits are characterized by a rich chemical content (vitamin C, polyphenols including anthocyanins, microelements). As early as in ancient times, cornelian cherry was known as a precious medical plant (especially its fruits, the bark and the flowers). Increasing interest in ‚healthy food’ may result in its second ‚discovery’, as the fruit of cornelian cherry thanks to its unique health-beneficial properties may be a rich source for food technology industry.
      KEY WORDS: cornelian cherry fruits, chemical composition, anthocyanins, medical plant, application in food technology
  • 51 (Un)safe Vegetables and Fruits – Waldemar Dzwolak
    • Raw vegetables and fruits constituting a basic component of healthy human diet, when are cultivated and harvested in a wrong way, may become a source of pathogenic bacteria and viruses as well as endoparasites (worms and protozoa). In the article, there were presented some fundamentals of good practices (GAP and GHP) which in connection with sanitization of raw vegetables and fruits form a key element of pathogens’ reduction to a safe level. Relating to chemical sanitization, some examples of reduction of bacteria population by application of chlorine, ozone, hydrogen peroxide and organic acids are described. In the paper, the examples of application of γ radiation and UV radiation to reduction of pathogenic bacteria and viruses on raw vegetables and fruits were presented.
      KEY WORDS: washing and disinfection of vegetables and fruits, good agricultural practice, good hygienic practice