Contents 8/2018; tome 72

ECONOMY

  • 6 A good and stable environment for the development of the food industry  in Poland- Jadwiga Drożdż,  Robert Mroczek (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.8.1)
    • The macroeconomic environment for the development of food industry production in Poland in recent years has been relatively stable. In 2015-2017, the value of sold production of the food industry increased from 207.5 to approx. PLN 238 billion, i.e. it increased on average by about 7% per annum in current prices and by about 5% per annum in constant prices. In 2017, as in previous years, food exports contributed most to the increase in the production of the food industry, and to a lesser extent this increase resulted from the increase in the processor’s prices and internal demand. Despite a slight reduction in profitability ratios, the financial results of all food sectors in 2017 were positive and the situation of the entire sector was good and stable. Disturbing may be fluctuations in the indices of some industries, but their low level has been a short-term phenomenon and has not threatened the development of processing. Good and stable economic and financial situation of the food industry and most of its industries favored high investment activity of food and beverage producers, which help them to effectively compete on a demanding international market.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, food, beverages, tobacco products, demand, production, profit
  • 12 Non-alcoholic beverages market in Poland – Mirosława Tereszczuk (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.8.2)
    • Production, consumption and export of non-alcoholic beverages in Poland in recent years has been marked by a positive trend. This increase was mainly caused by the increasing production and consumption of non-alcoholic beverages, which is the result of greater awareness of Poles and promotion of a healthy lifestyle. The production of water and other non-alcoholic bever- ages is mainly oriented towards the domestic market and is characterized by seasonality. Foreign trade does not play a major role in shaping the domestic market of non-alcoholic beverages. Export accounts for only 2% of total agri-food exports, and imports only 1%. The non-alcoholic beverage market is changing and is very promising. The knowledge of consumer trends and the location of product innovations is the main “driving force” of the development of the non-alcoholic beverages sector in Poland.
      KEY WORDS: non-alcoholic beverages, production, consumption, foreign trade
  • 16 Support for the production of food in the multiannual financial framework for the years 2021-2027- Eugeniusz K. Chyłek, Katarzyna Chyłek (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.8.3)
    • The implementation of the priorities of the European Union designated for the EU-27 by inclusion of the European Development Fund to the budget of the Union, became the basis for development in the framework of the Commission’s draft proposal of the multiannual financial framework (MFF). Developed the proposal aims to simplify and increase the transparency of the budget and the main emphasis on clearly defined political priorities. A detailed description of the structures and policies that will fall within the scope of individual departments, including the common agricultural policy in its communication on the MFF. This article presents the most important plans for the Commission on the issues of food production, with the use of the instruments of the common agricultural policy, in accordance with the expected social Community residents.
      KEY WORDS: multiannual financial framework, the European Union, common agricultural policy, food

LAW

  • 22 Fluorinated greenhouse gases – the new responsibilities for operators of refrigeration equipments – Magdalena Wróbel-Jędrzejewska, Urszula Stęplewska, Elżbieta Polak (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.8.4)
    • New obligations regarding f-gas law according to Polish and European legislation are presented in this article. An unfavorable influence of freons on the environment is described and the most important indicators are characterized. The responsibilities introduced by the amended law regarding: databases, personnel and company certification, leakage control, labeling and handling of refrigerants are discussed in detail. The scope of duties and activities to which a person with the appropriate category of personal certificate and a certified company are authorized, are also presented. The consequences of failure to comply with the required f-gas duties are indicated.
      KEY WORDS: f-gas, certification, obligations and penalties

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 28 Advanced freezing techniques – possibilities of improving the process kinetics and the course of crystallization – Julia Bogdanowicz, Wacław Mozolewski, Sylwester Rybaczek (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.8.5)
    • Freezing is the effective and widely used food preservation method. The freezing process of food products is related to the phase metamorphosis of the contained water. The final quality of the frozen product is strongly dependent on the morphology of the forming ice crystals, which in the growth phase can cause irreversible mechanical damage to its microstructure. The supercooling rate of the product and ice nucleation temperature need to be controlled to improve the efficiency of the freezing process. The following review article is focused on the several novel technologies for controlling ice crystallization during freezing, such as freezing with use of high pressure, ultrasound, radio waves, electric field and magnetic field. The mechanisms of the impact on the nucleation, the influence on the organoleptic properties of food products and the possibility of practical industrial applications were extensively discussed.
      KEY WORDS: advanced freezing techniques, microstructure, ice nucleation, supercooling
  • 34 Bioprocess Feedback Control A Case Study of the Fed-Batch Biomass Cultivation Bioprocess – Antoni Ryniecki, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Piotr Gulewicz, Dariusz Horla, Dorota Nowak (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.8.6)
    • It is particularly difficult to control a biotechnological process because of significant sensitivity of living organisms cultured in bioreactors to process parameters and environmental conditions. Varying conditions of the process are also significant (a change in the chemical composition of the substrate or a change in the mass exchange conditions resulting from the modification of rheological parameters). The industrial biomass cultivation processes require the optimal biomass growth rate. In order to ensure it, it is necessary to analyze input variables,  find the most representative output variables,  and design an adequate automated control strategy, which should be tailored to a given bioprocess. The article analyzes selected automated control systems in fed-batch biomass cultivation bioprocesses presented in reference publications concerning bioprocess control. Open-loop and closed-loop control systems were taken into consideration. The research showed that open-loop control systems could not respond to process disturbances such as unexpected variations in input variables. Therefore, the authors analyzed closed-loop control systems in more detail, especially the feedback control systems with proportional-integral (PI) control action, which were used to stabilize the specific growth rate at a desired level. The authors presented equations which enable the online estimation of the specific growth rate on the basis of cellular metabolic heat. It has been noticed that the quality of automated control of bioprocesses can be further improved through improvement of control systems with a feedback.
      KEY WORDS: feedback control, bioprocess, nutrient inflow control, bioreactor, model-based control, metabolic heat
  • 42 The influence of technological factors on the survivability of Lb. acidophilus and Lb. Casei – Adrian Wojtczak, Małgorzata Ziarno, Katarzyna Czarniak (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.8.7)
    • The survivability of ten examined strains of the Lactobacillus genus was dependent, to a great extent, on the technological factors. The fermentation process affected positively both the survivability of all strains and the number of bacterial cells. Refrigeration storage time did not affect the survivability of only one strain. In the case of four strains, no relationship between the survivability and aeration was found. For four strains aeration of the environment had a positive effect. In the case of one strain, a better growth was observed under non-aerated conditions. For one strain aeration had different effects on survivability depending on whether or not the fermentation had been carried out. For fermented samples, aeration had a positive effect on survivability, and for non-fermented samples – no longer. The majority of strains were affected by at least two of the three factors studied.
      KEY WORDS: fermentation, aeration, storage
  • 50 The possibility of formation of new product features by the osmotic dehydration of raw materials – Bartosz Kulczyński, Marzena Bueschke, Anna Gramza-Michałowska, Oskar Szczepaniak, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.8.8)
    • Osmotic dehydration is a well-known method of removing water from a raw materials, while extending their shelf-life. However, this technology can also be successfully used in shaping new characteristics of food products. Through the use of various osmotic solutions and additional substances, it is possible to modify the texture of vegetables and fruits, as well as affect their sensory qualities, antioxidant potential and nutritional value.
      KEY WORDS: osmotic dehydration, bioactive compounds, food fortification

LOGISTICS – PACKAGING

  • 54 Quiet Revolution in Packaging from  the Producer’s  Point of View   – Maciej Konopka
  • 64 Use of Blockchain technology in the food trade- Waldemar Osmólski, Adam Koliński (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.9)
    • Current supply chains, in fact we can speak of full ecosystems, the trade in agri-food products is changing in an extremely dynamic way, requiring constant supervision and control of the goods flowing through them. This is an extremely important issue in terms of protecting the health and life of consumers, which, in terms of the concept of corporate social responsibility, puts people at the centre of attention and all activities of enterprises must be geared to their needs. It is therefore very important to check the quality and authenticity of the product’s origin in detail, at every stage of its development, so that it can be reacted to as quickly as possible in the event of a risk to consumers’ health or life. Maximally short response times as well as safety can be ensured by using Blockchain technology to meet the above requirements. In this article, the authors focused on the use of Blockchain technology in the implementation of logistics processes.
      KEY WORDS: Blockchain, foodstuff, supply chain, ecosytem
  • 70 Evaluation of Bioactive Properties of Selected Commercial Elderberry Products – Karolina Młynarczyk, Dorota Walkowiak-Tomczak (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.8.10)
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of selected commercial products made from elderberry fruits and flowers, in terms of their bioactive properties. The research covered products available on the market, including juices, syrups, jam, mousse and confiture. The evaluation was based on measurements of antioxidant activity, total polyphenols content, as well as anthocyanins content and profile. The antioxidant activity was highly correlated with the content of polyphenols in the tested products. The highest values of these parameters were shown by one of five juices, which was directly pressed from organic fruit. The least phenolic compounds, and thus the weakest antioxidant properties, were found in the case of syrups, especially elderflower syrup. The highest content of anthocyanins, depending on the test method used, was observed in the mentioned juice and jam, whereas the lowest amounts of these compounds or their absence were recorded in confiture, mousse and pharmaceutical syrup.
      KEY WORDS: elderberry, antioxidant activity, polyphenols, anthocyanins