Contents 8/2017; tome 71

Przemysł Spożywczy 8/2017ECONOMY

  • 10 Diversification of Polish Foreign Agri-Food Industry – Małgorzata Bułkowska (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.8.1)
    • In the paper, there have been presented the results of Polish foreign trade of agri-food products in 2016; a special attention was paid to the changes, which occurred in geographical and commodity structure of Polish agri-food exports during the recent three years. In spite of many unfavourable situations which affected Polish agri-food sector in the discussed period, export of Polish food still reveals growing tendency; the dynamics of export growth is, however, weaker and weaker. In 2016, the incomes from export of agri-food products increased by 1.2%, up to 24.2 billion EUR and the expenses on import were by 6.2% increased i.e. up to 17.1 billion EUR. Import of Poland increased quicker than export throughout the whole year 2016. The surplus of export vs. import has revealed a decline by 8.9%, i.e. to 7.1 billion EUR for the first time since many years. The countries of the European Union still remain the main customer and the supply market of Polish food nut the growing diversification of sale markets is being observed. Together with the decreasing role of the Community of Independent States in Polish food export, the meaning of other remote sale markets such as countries of the South-East Asia, Near East and Africa is growing. On the mentioned above “new” markets, Polish cereal products, meat and chocolate products become successfully more and more popular.
      KEY WORDS: foreign trade, agri-food products, geographical and product structure, Poland, European Union, third countries
  • 16 Declaration of the GV4+3 – the Expected Effects in the Agri-Food Sector – Eugeniusz K. Chyłek (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.8.2)
    • The European food market means hundreds of billions of Euros, a huge market of employees – more than 44 million people and a significant number of SME operators – more than 260 thousand producers, supporting the budgets of the EU countries with their taxes. Agri-food sector means not only food production but also, a leading area of the bio-economy, whose importance in contemporary economic policy of the EU takes on the increasing importance. In the Annex to the Declaration GV4+3 of the Agriculture Ministers of 2016, there were formulated the research areas, covering agri-food sector, bio-economy, and rural areas and being strategically important for the Euroregion of the Central and Eastern Europe The article discusses the problems, being recognized as the most important for the development of the agri-food sector of signatory States of Declaration GY4+3.
      KEY WORDS: agri-food industry, Declaration of States of the Visegrad Group, Horizon 2020, science, research, innovation, development


  • 24 Help in the Interpretation of Food Additive Legislation. Part II. Commission Guidance Documents – Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek, Jolanta Jarecka, Marta Dłużewska
    • Legislation on food additives is complicated and the implementation of the rules is difficult for the producers as well as for the official control authorities. In order to facilitate the implementation of the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EC) No 1333/2008 in the food additives, the European Commission has worked out the drafts of the guidance documents: on the carry-over principle and on the processing aids. Some entries of these drafts of guideline documents are described in the article.
      KEY WORDS: food additives, guidance documents, European Commission, carry-over principle, processing aids


  • 28 Transport – Problematic Link of Cold Chain – Joanna Markowska, Elżbieta Polak (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.8.3)
    • Food products – during their transportation – are susceptible to changes in transport conditions, including variations in temperature and humidity occurring inside refrigerated vehicles. Foods that have been transported under the wrong conditions lose their quality and are unsuitable for further consumption. Thus, it is necessary to properly adjust the climatic conditions, time of transport and type of transport unit to the requirements of the proper transportation of particular food products. The article presents issues related to appropriate transport conditions and food distribution within the cold chain. On this background, the selected issues related to law aspects, changes in the quality, appearance and sensory characteristics of products, resulting from the fact of temperature stability preservation failure in transport have been presented. The article analyses the most frequent causes of losses and damages occurring in chilled and refrigerated food products.
      KEY WORDS: transport, cold chain, temperature monitoring, chilled and frozen foods
  • 39 The Methods of Waste Treatment in Meat Manufacturing Plants – Martyna Kwiecińska, Izabela Kruszelnicka, Dobrochna Ginter-Kramarczyk (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.8.4)
    • Food industry deals with the manufacture of products and semi-products, intended for consumption; it is very dynamically developing sector of economy. The involved enterprises are, however characterized, by a considerable scattering and disintegration what has a significant effect on the level of emitted contamination, including wastes. The present paper contains a fragment of a review of modern methods for waste water treatment in food industry; the possible solutions, resulting from the changing and more and more restrictive water-legal regulations, have been presented. The definition of the wastes, coming from the meat industry and their characteristics has been also included. The methods for their treatment, using mechanical, chemical and biological methods were discussed.
      KEY WORDS: meat industry, food industry, waste water treatment, mechanical, chemical and biological methods of waste water treatment
  • 46 Water in the Food Industry – Analysis of the Selected Applications – Emilia Janiszewska-Turak, Dominika Sierszak, Maria Hankus, Zbigniew Pałacha(DOI:10.15199/65.2017.8.5)
    •  Water is widely used in the food industry, and is also essential to life. In the industry, it is suitable for cleaning, disinfection, heat treatment, may be used as reagent and solvent for chemical reactions. Moreover, it is a substance capable of storing and transferring heat. Water vapor, on the other hand, is an indispensable element of all processes of production, processing, packaging, transport and distribution of food. Electrolyzed water, in turn, is an excellent disinfectant. The paper presents the selected applications of water in the food industry.
      KEY WORDS: water for drinking, food industry, disinfectant, electrolysis water


  • 56 Sensory Qualities of the Packaging – Halina Podsiadło, Anna Chud (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.8.6)
    • The article touches upon the relationship between the packaging and the man, and explores the issue of sensory qualities of the packaging. It demonstrates the importance of the appearance of the packaging from the viewpoint of the consumer. The article emphasizes the importance of the impression made by the packaging and explains the requirements it should meet. It also characterizes the shapes used in the packaging industry and assesses their impact on the consumer. Subsequently, the article touches on the issues related to the psychology of colour, and discusses the means of expression that graphic designers use to emphasize the features of a product. In conclusion, the article describes intelligent packaging, its functions and the method of implementing them.
      KEY WORDS: packaging, sensory, food
  • 61 Warehouse Management Based on GS1 Standards – Piotr Frąckowiak
    • System-oriented and process-oriented warehouse management is a necessity nowadays. It is not possible without an automatic identification system that uses widely accepted GS1 standards. Automatic identification used in warehouse processes does not, of course, solve all the company problems in warehouse logistics. Please note that ADC techniques imposed on existing, unverified processes will not bring much new and can complicate the users live. ADC techniques should be used only after analyzing and correctly defining the processes in the warehouse. Then it will be possible to achieve optimum functionality in daily work, and an immediate and error-free emergency response in crisis situations. It will also allow meeting the legal requirements for ensuring food safety and traceability.
      KEY WORDS: warehouse management, WMS, process analysis, GS1 standards, Automatic Data Capture, ADC, GS1 logistics label


  • 68 Lipids in Food, Nutrition and Human Health. Part I. Availability, Sources and Lipids Intake – Jan Kłobukowski, Joanna Ciborska, Filip Kłobukowski(DOI:10.15199/65.2017.8.7)
    • Mechanisms of triacyloglycerols’ (TG) digestion and absorption of fat enzymatic hydrolysis products were presented in this paper. The fat content, profile of fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, and PUFA), fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E) and cholesterol in the selected food products were discussed. The level of food products’ consumption and of fat intake in Polish households was characterized.
      KEY WORD: digestion, absorption, fat, food products
  • 73 Qualified Tourism as a New Channel of Food Production – Justyna Kadzińska, Stanisław Kalisz, Karolina Końsko
    • Bigger and bigger awareness among consumers with regard to the beneficiary impact of sport attracts people to more unusual ways of physical activity among which we can find a qualified tourism. Its amateurs want to achieve the highest specialization in the chosen discipline. Therefore, they exercise intensively so that their organisms will be able to deal with the extreme conditions which are inextricably related to this kind of tourism. Then, the organism needs a balanced diet which is adapted to the level of effort and the kind of discipline. Not only equipment, but also food has to meet very strict requirements. Food should be easy to prepare as well as it ought to be possible to take it everywhere taking into account that it is only a small part of the luggage. A quick development of qualified tourism provokes thoughts about the expectations of qualified tourists in relation to expedition type food.
      KEY WORDS: qualified tourism, convenience food, functional food, consumer
  • 76 Health-Promoting Products, Containing Bioactive Components of Potato Juice – Grażyna Lewandowicz, Przemysław Kowalczewski, Magdalena Człapka-Matyasik, Małgorzata Korsar, Jan Jeszka (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.8.8)
    • Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Their chronic nature and not always effective treatment make them a serious medical problem. Moreover, malabsorption of nutrients and occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding put the people suffering from IDB at risk of anemia, which results from iron deficiencies. IDB impacts the quality of life, making it also a social problem, as the afflicted people are forced to resort to a restrictive and monotonous diet. The ingredients with documented anti-inflammatory activity applied in food production can effectively help prevention and medication of IBD as well as broaden the narrow range of products consumed by chronically ill people. Potato juice applied, for a long time in folk medicine, as a remedy for gastrointestinal diseases of various etiologies, has been recently proved to be one of the sources of such ingredients.
      KEY WORDS: potato juice, inflammatory states of gastrointestinal tract, functional food