Contents 8/2016; tome 70

Przemysł Spożywczy 8/2016ECONOMY

  • 14 The Revival of the Food Industry in Poland – Jadwiga Drożdż, Robert Mroczek
    • The first symptoms of production revival in food industry have already appeared but from among its three sectors, only production of food products has increased steadily during the recent years. Simultaneously, the growth rate of exports of agri-food products has decreased during the recent two years. Better macroeconomic situation (including, inter alia, faster GDP growth, maintaining the real wages’ rise) may slightly increase the domestic demand for food. The economic and financial situation of the food industry and most of its sectors is good and its financial condition is safe. There are no major threats to continuation of current economic activities in any of the sectors. Recently, only large fluctuations in economic and financial indicators in the spirits industry could be the subject of certain concern; although, in the previous year, all profitability indicators in the mentioned sector were high. In 2015, the differentiation of economic and financial results in the particular sectors has become deeper but it is difficult to assess whether it is the beginning of sustainable trend or incidental phenomenon.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, food, beverages, tobacco products, demand, production, profit
  • 18 Future of Polish Food Economy – Bronisław Wesołowski
  • 20 RASFF – Fishery and Aquaculture Products. Analysis of the Most Common Hazards Associated (2014-2016) – Sławomir Keszka, Remigiusz Panicz
    • Fish and fishery products account for 10% of total export of agricultural products and 1% of value of the world trade. Introduction of RASFF provides efficient identification and distribution of information on microbiological, heavy metal and product counterfeiting hazards. The last group is highly important for the selection of appropriate monitoring steps and further assessment of food safety risks along the whole food chain. RASFF data demonstrate that the total number of notifications for fish and their products recorded in system reached its peak in 2011 and then dropped a to a level of approximately 300 records in 2013-2015, what accounted for approximately 12% of all RASFF records submitted in 2014. Analysis of RASFF notifications reveals also other so-far unknown hazards, presenting new trends in fishery and aquaculture trade, which induce new hazards for human health (allergens, food additives, drug residues, environmental chemicals).
      KEY WORDS: food safety, control of seafood hazards, fisheries, aquaculture, seafood counterfeiting

LAW

  • 30 The New System of Trademarks’ Registration in Poland – Edyta Demby-Siwek

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 35 Food Additive or Processing Aid? – Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek, Jolanta Jarecka
    • The European Union legislation contains the definitions of food additive and processing aids. The use of food additives is strictly regulated while there are no specific rules on the use of processing aids. Taking into account that processing aids do not have to be listed on the label of the final product in contrary to food additives, the classification of the substance is crucial to the proper labeling of the final product. The differentiations between food additive and processing aid based on their definitions are described in the article.
      KEY WORDS: food additive, processing aid, labeling
  • 52 Determination of the Nutritive Value for the Purposes of Food Labelling – Beata Przygoda
    • From 13 December 2016, the presentation of nutritive value in food labelling will be mandatory. In accordance with the Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the provision of food information to consumers, determination of the nutritive value of products, can be performed on the basis of the analysis of food products, of the calculation based on the known or actual average values of the ingredients used, or of the calculation based upon generally established and approved data. The choice of method depends on the type of food product, its composition and the conditions of technological process.
      KEY WORDS: nutritive value, food, labelling
  • 58 Starter Cultures in Manufacture of Raw-cured Meat Products – Paulina Kęska, Joanna Stadnik, Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska
    • Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are part of the natural microbiota of human gastrointestinal tract. They are also present in/on some food products and are used as starter cultures for fermented foods. LABs serve as a potential source of different secondary metabolites which shape quality of the products. Apart from the synthesis of molecules which improve microbiological food safety, LABs are used in manufacturing dry-cured meat products to form their sensory properties. Apart from LAB, yeasts and moulds are also recommended as components of starter cultures. Their presence on the surface of meat products protects them from light and air, which retards oxidative changes and improves sensory quality. Application of functional starter cultures, designed to obtain certain effects, may enable production of meat products with specific quality features.
      KEY WORDS: LAB, functional starter cultures, probiotics
  • 70 Food Allergens – can we Feel Safe? – Anna Jędrusek-Golińska, Dorota Piasecka-Kwiatkowska
    • Food allergy is a food adverse reaction associated with the immune system response of sensitive people to the food ingredient. It has many symptoms; the most dangerous of them is a life-threatening anaphylactic shock. It can occur after ingestion of even very small doses of the allergen. To protect the consumer safety, The Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council was introduced, which obliges food producers to inform about allergens present in the products, both packaged and unpackaged, it means sold in bulk or served in restaurants, bars, etc. The situation is difficult, because you cannot determine the least, safe for all, doses of the allergen, and also, the methods of allergen determination have their detection thresholds. Ensuring security is, therefore, connected with the increase in the awareness and responsibility of both producers (e.g. training for staff on cross-contamination), and food consumers.
      KEY WORDS: food allergens, consumer safety.

LOGISTICS – PACKAGING

  • 75 Bar-codes Using, Good Practices for Food Producer – Jerzy Majewski, Filip Majewski
    • The paper shows the facilitation method of warehouse processes for defined food producer. The method was based on properly selected bar-codes and specially designed information system. The paper presents the applied solutions and unforeseen traps that were revealed during implementation process and required to be immediately solved. The paper describes the principles of creation and using of the rules of standard logistics labels, being stuck on pallets with food products. The labels are a kind of passport for every pallet logistics unit. The crucial role in the presented solution was assigned to specially designed application for mobile terminals, scanning bar-codes (warehousemen were equipped with such terminals). The presented description of preparing food producer for using WMS-class information system may be also interesting for other producers in food industry. The object of the conducted research was a producer of semi-finished products for food industry.
      KEY WORDS: automatic identification, GS1, bar-codes, warehouse, WMS system

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 84 The Level of Nickel content in Food Products. The New Guidelines of the European Commission – Monika Mania, Tomasz Szynal, Maria Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Małgorzata Rebeniak
    • The article presents information concerning risk for human health connected with the presence of nickel in food and water intended for human consumption in the light of the recent opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of 2015. The current European Union legislation does not contain maximum permissible levels of nickel in foodstuffs. The European Commission evaluated recommendation concerning monitoring of nickel in food which should be implemented in the years 2016-2018.
      KEY WORDS: nickel, food, dietary intake, risk assessment, RASFF
  • 90 Spelt in Healthy Extruded Food Product – Tomasz Żelaziński, Adam Ekielski, Adam Siwek
    • The paper presents the problem of the application of spelt as a basic raw material for the extrusion process. It describes the functional properties of spelt and provides a detailed overview of the literature on spelt extrusion. The work also contains a summary of the selected results of the own studies on extrusion of raw materials, including spelt.
      KEY WORDS: extrusion, spelt, quality investigation
  • 96 The Influence of Antioxidants and Packaging Atmosphere on the Viability of Immobilized Probiotics – Małgorzata Mizielińska, Katarzyna Sobecka, Michał Jarosz, Dawid Urbański, Magdalena Stobińska
    • The chosen probiotics were encapsulated using cocoa butter as hydrophobic substance and packed in MAP conditions. The vitamin C and tocopherol were used as additives. The samples were stored for 4 months at 25ºC. The results of the study showed that the number of bacterial cells that were immobilized and packed in MAP did not decrease after one month of storage in room temperature conditions. The 2 log reduction of the number of viable cells packed in MAP was noticed after 4 months of storage. In comparison to these samples the 4 log reduction of the amount of probiotics packed in air conditions was demonstrated. The antioxidants as additives did not increase the survivability of bacterial cells.
      KEY WORDS: immobilization, encapsulation, probiotics
  • 102 The Impact of Nutrition on Gut Microbiota and Human Health – Marcelina Olszak, Ewa Solarska
    • A significant progress in genetic methods for identifying of the microorganisms, as being observed during the recent years, has contributed to discovery of new niches of microorganisms. Particular interest of scientists is now focused on the human gut microflora and its impact on the human health. The correct qualitative and quantitative composition of intestinal microorganisms has a positive effect on the human body. The daily diet consisting of essential nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats is one of the most significant factors. A large part of a balanced diet should be composed of vegetable products, mainly fresh vegetables, fruits and herbs. During the growth on the field, the plants are colonized by microorganisms, both on the surface and in intracellular form. After consumption of raw vegetables or fruits by humans, microorganisms present therein may affect the intestines, and thus, the health of the whole body.
      KEY WORDS: gut microflora, microbiota plant, diet, human health