Contents 8/2015; tome 69

Przemysł Spożywczy 8/2015ECONOMY

  • 18 Polish Food on the European and World Markets – Mirosława Tereszczuk
    • The aim of the present article is to show the current situation in Polish foreign trade in agricultural products, with particular emphasis on exports. An analysis of geographical and commodity structure of the Polish agri-food exports was performed. Despite many unfavourable external conditions that occurred in 2014, exports of agri-food products from Poland did not collapse; on the contrary, it recorded 4.5% growth in value to EUR 21.3 billion. It is expected that in 2015 the proceeds from agri-food exports may amount to approximately EUR 22.4 billion and will be by ca. 55 higher than in the previous year. The main recipients of the Polish agri-food products are the EU countries which account for 80% of exports. Until recently, Polish exporters had their high hopes regarding the CIS countries but the Russian embargo and conflict in Ukraine has led to the collapse of exports to the mentioned countries. The mentioned situation forced diversification of the markets for Polish food. New trends in exports have appeared, including inter alias, countries of Africa, Asia, the Near East and the North America. KEY WORDS: food, foreign trade, exports, Europe, world
  • 23 The Problems of Consolidation in the Meat Industry – Piotr Chechelski, Magdalena Krawczuk
    • Trade pressure on decrease of prices and lower margins causes that meat companies operate almost on the verge of profitability. Consolidation in the industry becomes necessary and allows concentration of production and increase of profitability. The article attempts to assess the impact of increased scale of production on the profitability of the largest meat businesses. In the article, the reasons for the low level of consolidation and risks caused by its lack as well as the possible development strategies for companies with Polish capital have been presented.
      KEY WORDS: consolidation, the meat industry, profitability
  • 34 The Problems of the World Fisheries and Certification by the MSC – Piotr J. Bykowski
    • The non-governmental Marine Stewardship Council [MSC] has developed the principles for certification procedures for fishery of the specified fish species, with the application of FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The foundation of the mentioned organization in 1997 was an evident signal of the lack of trust in the actions undertaken by the official institutions. After a number of years fisheries administrations have realized that a certification system can be a relevant element supporting their activities. At present the fisheries certification system is operating in a large scale; in the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union, the organizations of the producers are encouraged to utilize fisheries certification. Globally more than 10% of all fisheries are conducted according to the certified fisheries standards.
      KEY WORDS: problems of fisheries, certification of fishing, sustainable fisheries, fisheries overfished

 TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 40 Emulsion-Based Carriers for Bioactive Components – Grażyna Bortnowska
    • In the article, the emulsion-based carriers manufactured with the external (continuous) water phase were characterized. The mentioned carriers may be assigned to protect both lipophilic and hydrophilic bioactive components which are characterized by a high chemical instability and are used in very low concentrations also in the systems having a different polarity. Moreover, some of the innovative methods having the aim to increase stability of the emulsion and bioactive components absorbed in respective phases of the system were discussed.
      KEY WORDS: emulsion-based carriers, stability, bioactive components
  • 48 Declaration of Quantitative Content of Meat Ingredients. Labelling Meat Products – Jolanta Joanna Sienkiewicz, Andrzej Wesołowski
    • According to the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EU) on providing consumers with information about food [7] – No 1169/ 2011 of 25th October 2011, labelling meat products with precise information about of the quantity of the ‘meat’ ingredients along with the species from which it originates, is obligatory. The regulation started on 13th December 2014. The requirement for labelling meat products with quantitative content of a given component (QUID) at the time of its use in the process is highly desirable from the point of view of consumers. Moreover, if the amount of fat and/or connective tissue is exceeded, the manufacturer is obliged by the new regulations to inform the consumer about such an excess.
      KEY WORDS: QUID, labelling meat products
  • 54 Commission Guidance Documents Concerning Food Additives – Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek, Katarzyna Kuźma, Agnieszka Świtka, Jolanta Jarecka
    • Legislation on food additives is extensive and complicated; the interpretation of some requirements is doubtful for producers as well as for official control authorities. Especially, the classification of food product according to Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 and application of carry-over principle brings many doubts. In order to make the use of food additive legislation easier, the European Commission has worked out the guidance document describing the food categories and guidance document on the carry-over principle (draft).
      KEY WORDS: food additives, guidance document, food categories, carry-over principle
  • 62 Design of the Control System for Canned-Food Sterilization – Antoni Ryniecki, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Bożena Danyluk
    • A properly designed control system for canned-food sterilization is able to achieve the final desired level of bacterial inactivation, irrespective of any disturbances, e.g. in the form of undesired changes of the heating- -medium temperature, and with a minimum of over-processing. The feed-forward control system for canned- food sterilization was described in the article. The controller in such a system is able: (a) to anticipate the change of the final cumulative lethality in a situation when the disturbances of the process occurred during heating and (b) to take appropriate corrective actions that can eliminate such disturbances. The heating turn-off decisions in such a controller are based upon the prediction (in every second during heating) of cumulative lethality for the cooling stage. The prediction of the cooling phase is based on a simulation of temperature changes in the coldest point inside a can using the empirical m-th order step-response model.
      KEY WORDS: feed-forward control, model based control, sterilization, canned-food, cumulative lethality

LOGISTICS – PACKAGING

  • 66 Food Banks Cooperation with Donors – Magdalena Krajewska
  • 69 Food Product Packaging and Value for Producer – Joanna Kuzincow, Wiktor Woytowicz 
    • The paper presents concepts of value for market participants such as: consumer, society and first of all – different kinds of enterprises. There were also presented ways of creating of this value – being understood as subjectively perceived ratio of incurred costs to the obtained benefits – through the appropriate choice of product packaging. The authors have identified a number of practical solutions related to packaging systems, including: demand, production volume and margin increasing or cost reduction in the area of both the product itself, its quality and materials, as well as logistics and promotional activities.
      KEY WORDS: food packaging, value for producer, competitive strategies, costs reducing, increasing of benefits
  • 78 Good Practice in Transport. Selected Aspects – Krzysztof Przystupa
    • In Europe, and particularly in the EU Member States, the process of standardizing various aspects of economic activity has been lasting for many years. The tools used for this purpose are, inter alia, standards and the best practices. Road transport also requires such regulations [1]. The article presents basic regulations for securing cargo, requirements for vehicles and means of fastening. It also discusses a practical example.
      KEY WORDS: Quality management, road freight, good practice in cargo fastening
  • 82 Liability for Damage. Dangerous Food Product – Iwona Wrześniewska-Wal
    • The article presents the problem of civil liability for damages caused by unsafe food product. Particular attention has been paid to the risk of developing the condition and the circumstances exempting from liability for damage caused by the product, considered at the time of its manufacture or marketing for the corresponding applicable standards and non-defective one.
      KEY WORDS: food, dangerous product, responsibility, risk

 EVENTS

  • 86 List of Advertisements

88 XLII Scientific Session of the Committee on Food Sciences of PAN (Polish Academy of Sciences) „Food-Health -Future” Lublin, 25-26 June 2015 – Jolanta Stadnik, Izabella Jackowska