Contents 8/2009

okładka Przemysł Spożywczy 8/2009


  • 13 Food Market and Food Production in the Face of the World Economic Crisis – Roman Urban
    • The years 2003-2008 were the period of quick development of food sector. As affected by favourable situation cycle and integration with the EU, income situation of the consumers and farmers, processors and other entities, acting in the surroundings of agriculture and processing sector was improved. The situation was, however, changed in the half of 2008. As affected by the global phenomena, Polish food sector lost its high dynamics of development but it has effectively defended against recession and economic crisis. The mentioned threats are smaller than in other sectors of Polish economy.
      KEY WORDS: food production, food market, world economic crisis
  • 22 International Agricultural Markets – what Futher? – Janusz Rowiński
    • The international agricultural markets are approaching the new equilibrium. The next years will probably be a period of important changes in the international trade of agricultural products. The developing countries will play much more important role as food producers, importers and exporters. The expected rise of import markets of China and India may have a special meaning.
      KEY WORDS: agricultural markets, agricultural trade, food production, demand on food
  • 28 Shared Services Centers – Business Optimization – Joanna Plizga, Michał Turczyk
    • Shared services centers concerning e.g. finance, HR or logistics bring substantial costs optimization and improve quality of services for enterprises. Therefore, they are one of methods to be used by companies for improvement of business effectiveness during economic slowdown. Additionally, a company may obtain funding within the EU Funds for establishment or development of SSC. This year budget for such undertakings exceeds 1 billion PLN and grant applications can be submitted until it is not used beforehand.
      KEY WORDS: shared services center, EU Funds, competitiveness of enterprises, business optimization
  • 32 Clusters – the Solution to Acceleration of Development of Underdeveloped Regions – Katarzyna Duczkowska-Małysz
    • Clusters function as the result of close cooperation among enterprises which are realising the common goals and common tasks which cluster is organized for. There is no doubt that clusters accelerate the economic growth and development also in regions with socio-economic disparities and rural areas as well. Experiences of countries, which started with cluster organization in the middle of 1970s show that cluster structures base on innovations, high technologies and new, modern systems of management. Concentration of enterprises, institutions and universities which cooperate together is the result of globalization and market internationalization cluster structures help to firms and regions compete on international markets.
      KEY WORDS: clusters, vertical, horizontal and diagonal cooperation among enterprises, types of clusters, cluster advantages


  • 36 Amendments in Directives on Food Additives – Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek
    • In the European Union, the work on the draft regulation, amending Directive 92/2/EC on food additives different than colours and sweeteners is going on. The mentioned draft document anticipates the admission of other additive substances and extension of the list of the applications of already allowed food additives. Also, the draft regulation amending Directive 94/36/EC on colours employed in food has been developed. There were introduced the changes concerning, inter alia, application of lycopene in food. The draft regulation amending Directive 94/35/Ec on the use of sweeteners was elaborated, as well. It contains, inter alia, the requirements of applying neotame. The European Commission has also developed the draft regulation, laying down the programme for evaluation of safety of the allowed food additives.
      KEY WORDS: food additives, colours, sweeteners, safety of food additives


  • 40 Nutritive Value of Food – Methods of its Establishing – Romualda Dolińska, Monika Żmudzka, Katarzyna Wawer, Anna Bugajewska
    • Discussion of methods of setting the nutrition value of foodstuffs and ways of declare nutrition facts on the labels, according to the regulation of Ministry of Health 25 July 2007 on labeling by nutrition value (Official Journal of Laws 2007 no 137, item 967). Review of methods of setting the nutrition value depending on kind of food and questions concerning different methods of determination nutrition value. Modification in Council Directive 90/496/EEC of 24 September 1990 on nutrition labeling for foodstuffs, which are obligatory to implement to the Polish food law.
      KEY WORDS: nutrition value, food, food labeling
  • 44 How are Odours Measured? – Marek Druri
    • Odours in our life are more important as we think. They can affect our moods, our feelings and our actions. The hedonic scores and adequate descriptors allow describing odour character. The Gas Chromatography technique enables detecting of qualitative and quantitative compositions of odorants. Odour intensity we can be measured by olfactomeric method according to standard CEN 13725. The possibility of the precise malodours intensity measurement, allows to use standards for delimit of the bad smell emission in the environment.
      KEY WORDS: odours, odour measurement , odour intensity, olfactomeric methods
  • 52 Spices – Properties and Innovative Solution – Barbara Kowrygo, Izabela Rowińska
    • The main trends in the development of spices market were described in the article. The secondary type of data was used including internet information of market leaders. Special attention was paid to: the role of spices in human nutrition, market segmentation, main stakeholders and innovative activities of producers. It was concluded that in the production of spices creativity not quality is the main concern.
      KEY WORDS: spices, market, leaders, sales seasonality, consumption
  • 58 Culinary Beef – Living Factors and Quality – Marek Cierach, Maciej Borzyszkowski, Jacek Niedźwiedź
    • This article presents the effect of living factors responsible for the characteristic features of culinary beef. Getting high-quality meat is possible only under very particular conditions as optimal animal welfare and appropriate treatment before slaughter. Those factors are crucial for obtaining beef most appreciated by customers. It means meat which is tender, juicy, have a bright colour and high nutrition value. Failure of even one stage in this procedure can lead to unwanted effects and prevent generation of high-quality meat.
      KEY WORDS: culinary beef, quality, farm animal welfare, nutrition, cattle
  • 70 CIP System – Control of Containers and Sensors of Measuring – Joanna Piepiórka, Iwona Wojtasik
    • The work presents the questions relating to hygiene of warehouse containers which constitute the composition of central washing in CIP system. There is a necessity of periodical exchange of cleaning agents. In the paper, the washing program of installation containers and sensors of measuring calibration which are responsible for washing treatment correctness has been discussed.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, higiene, cleanning, CIP system


  • 74 Robotics in Food Packaging – Jan Barczyk
    • In the paper, the selected problems of robotization of product packing processes were discussed and the review of typical application of industrials robots for packing of food products was conducted. Most of the presently offered industrial robots may be employed in packing processes. Many packing processes have, however, specific requirements, e.g. high speed of functioning, possibility of synchronizing with belt conveyors, keeping the appropriate cleanness, correct precision of situating and the required lifting and range and sometimes, resistance to low temperature (work in refrigerating rooms).
      KEY WORDS: robotization, catching of products, food
  • 85 Market Value of Plastics Packaging in Poland – Bohdan Czerniawski
    • The paper contains the results of analysis of plastic packaging consumption in Poland, in the terms of its value. The data presented are submitted in relation to four analyzed segments of the market, i.e. flexible materials and packaging (including PE, PP and multilayer films), packaging thermoformed from rigid sheets, those formed by blowing process, as well as injection moulded ones, with a special attention paid on food packaging. In the analysis of plastics packaging market both system approach and interviews with experts were applied. The forecast directions of further development in the analyzed area have been given.
      KEY WORDS: packaging, plastics, market analysis, consumption, value
  • 90 Shelf Packaging – New Packages – Old Problems – Anna Kosmacz-Chodorowska
    • In the article, there were discussed basic guidelines for SRP, related to a common approach, developed within ECR Europe and adopted also in Poland by representatives of producers of consumer goods including food products and packaging providers in cooperation with retailers. In this part the following issues were presented: types of SRP and functional requirements that a packaging considered to be a SRP should meet.
      KEY WORDS: Shelf Ready Packaging (SRP)