Contents 8-9/2012

Przemysł Spożywczy 809/2012ECONOMY

  • 18 Polish Food Producers on the European and World Markets – Mirosława Tereszuk
    • Polish agri-food sector is one of the most modern food branches in the world and Polish agri-food products are of the highest quality. Polish food has a strong and well-established position on the European market where more than 80% of exports are directed and from where almost 70% of import comes. However, a rise of export to developing countries, including that one to the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and Asia, is being observed. The mentioned markets are very absorptive and perspective for Polish exporters. In 2011, value of food export from Poland increased up to 15.2 billion EUR, including the export to the EU-27, being equal to 11.9 billion EUR; export to CIS – amounted to 1.5 billion EUR and to the remaining countries – 1.8 billion EUR. The import to Poland increased to 12.6 billion EUR, including import from EU-27 – 8.8 billion EUR, from CIS countries – 0.5 billion EUR and from the remaining countries – 3.3 billion EUR. Balance of the trade exchange of food products was further improved and was equal to 2.6 billion EUR. It means that the role of Polish food products on foreign markets is increasing year by year.
      KEY WORDS: agri-food products, export, import, trade
  • 24 Main problems of the Polish Food Industry – Jadwiga Drożdż, Roman Urban
    • The article presents the current problems of the food industry, which have significant influence on the conditions and results of economic activity. The mentioned problems include: slowndown of domestic demand, increasing market restrictions, expensive raw materials and price rations, being unfavorable for the producers, high variation and declining production dynamics, instability of the financial results and the slow processes of concentration. Food manufacturers face external constraints, which they have to adapt to, what requires continuous improvement of activities and increase of their effectiveness.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, instability of production dynamics, profit fluctuations, concentration processes
  • 32 Bio-Economy in the Agri-Food Sector – Eugeniusz K. Chyłek
    • Use of resources in the world of plants, animals and micro-organisms, with the support of biotechnology, genetics, chemistry, physics or science economics can provide both the consumer and the economy of the EU for the expected results. Development of research for the rational management of these resources in conjunction with the application of innovative solutions that improve the efficiency of its use creates a new area of activities under the name bio-economy. Bio-economy covers practically all sectors and related services that produce, process or use biological resources in any form. In addition, bio-economy provides strategic over-sectoral integrating form of actions, affecting economic development, and shall be entrolled in the presently dominating, interdisciplinary approach to the financing of research in the area of the bio-economy. The article discusses the determinants of development of agri-food sector within the frames of the bio-economy programme in Poland and indicates the directions of activity which should be undertaken as to improve the conditions for development in agriculture and food industry.
      KEY WORDS: bio-economy, biological resources, agri-food sector, sustainable development, science policy, innovation.
  • 40 The World Brand Rankings – Hanna Górska-Warsewicz
    • The aim of this study was to present the selected rankings of brand value based on valuation, performed by financial and mixed methods. Rankings of the main consulting and research agencies such as Interbrand, Millward Brown and Brand Finance were presented. For the purpose of this paper, the selection of brands of food, alcohol and non-alcohol beverages, retail trade as well as restaurant and coffee house networks were analyzed on the ground of analytical reports of „The Best Global Brands” by Interbrand, „BrandZ™ Top 100 Most Valuable Global Brands” by Millward Brown and „Brand Finance Global 500” by Brand Finance.
      KEY WORDS: brand, brand valuation, brand rankings


  • 50 The Effect of Water Activity on Growth of Microorganisms – Krystyna Kowal
    • In the article, the water activity was defined. The effect of water activity on growth of bacteria, yeasts and molds was presented. Optimum and minimum water activity was determined. The possibility of microbial spoilage of food with differentiated water activity was described. The effect of the water activity on stability of foods was taken into consideration.
      KEY WORDS: water activity (aw), microorganisms, foods
  • 54 Cleaning and Disinfection of Reusable Packages – Sylwia Mierzejewska, Mariusz Wlazło
    • Reusable packages, widely used in the food indstry, require appropriate hygiene. This paper presents cleaning methods of reusable packaging, factors affecting the efficiency of the process and comparison of the costs of cleaning, depending on the method used. Choosing cleaning method should take into account the number of cleaning returnable packages, the price of cleaning equipment and economic aspects.
      KEY WORDS: returnable package, cleaning, disinfection, cleaning methods
  • 64 Methods of Detection and Determination of GMO. Part I Molecular Techniques – DNA Analysis – Marta Słowianek
    • Development of genetic engineering has led to the launch of GM foods, that means, food containing genetically modified organisms or food produced with their participation. The GMO introduction into diet and agriculture is arousing fears and controversies. Therefore, many countries, including the European Union, require mandatory labeling of GMO derived food. Consequently, a lot of methods for detection and quantification of GMO in the plant material and food products was developed. This paper focuses on methods for detection and quantification of GMO in food on the DNA level. The review describes techniques such as PCR, biosensors and microarrays with their advantages and drawbacks and specific examples of food products examined with their help.
      KEY WORDS: GMO, detection, DNA, PCR, biosensors, microarrays


  • 68 Nutrition Value Declaration as Information Important for Consumer – Alicja Walkiewicz, Hanna Kunachowicz
    • The new European Union regulation on the provision of food information to the consumers has to guarantee that the consumer is appropriately informed as regards the food he consumes, inter alia concerning the nutritional value of the food products. The label for the consumer is to be a tool enabling him to make an informed choice of food, in accordance with the principles of proper nutrition.
      KEY WORDS: labeling, regulation, consumer, nutrition value
  • 74 Flavourings – Drafts of the New Regulations – Jolanta Jarecka, Joanna Gajda–Wyrębek, Agnieszka Świtka, Katarzyna Kuźma
    • The European Commission is still working on the EU list of flavouring substances and the Union list of primary products for smoke flavourings intended to be used in food products. The drafts of the regulations establishing the mentioned above lists have been prepared. In the article, the most important points of the drafts of the regulations are described.
      KEY WORDS: flavourings, smoke flavourings, safety assessment, drafts of the new regulations
  • 78 Food Advertising – Legal Provisions Specific to the Industry – Aleksandra Kuc
    • Polish law does not provide for a single consolidated regulatory framework for food advertising. Thus, the above issue is covered by general legal acts regulating advertising irrespective of the kinds of products advertised, including in particular the act on combating unfair competition, as well as legal acts regulating advertising of food and specific food products. The basic rules for food advertising are covered by the law on the safety of food and nutrition. Advertising of products related to food industry are also regulated by the act on upbringing in sobriety and counteracting alcoholism, the act on health protection against consequences of use of tobacco and tobacco products and by the pharmaceutical law. While advertising of food as such is, as a general rule, allowed, advertising of certain products may be subject to conditions and far-reaching restrictions, such as in the case of infant formulae and dietary supplements. In other cases, such as in the case of tobacco and certain alcohol beverages, advertising is prohibited.
      KEY WORDS: law, advertising, dietary supplements, infant formulae, alcoholic beverages


  • 84 Chosen Elements of Transport in Food Processing – Radosław Sutkowski
    • The aim of this study is to describe certain elements of transport in food processing enterprises. Food processing on a large scale involves the implementation of the intensified flow of streams of raw materials and finished products. In the article, a role of the internal transport in the implementation of processes of the flow of goods in the manufacturing company was described.
      KEY WORDS: transport of food products, food processing, conveyor, lifting equipment
  • 94 E-Commerce in Aspect of Supply, As Well – Anna Kosmacz-Chodorowska
    • Automatic identification systems through bar codes – ADC and Electronic Data Interchange – EDI are the effective e-commerce tools. At the beginning, companies which implemented the ADC and EDI worked better; they included also the producers of food, only during the stage of sale. Today, more and more of these systems are implemented also in stage of supply. They constitute also the basic elements of the model of integration processes in the area of supply – Upstream Integration Model (UIM), developed together in the framework of a global initiative to improve supply – Global Commerce Initiative (GCI).
      KEY WORDS: sourcing, data identification, barcodes, ADC systems, EDI systems, UIM model, GCI model
  • 98 New Idea to the Package


  • 102 Poland – Union – World
  • 104 Business Information