Contents 8/2019; Tome 73


  • 6 The Role of Import in The Raw Material Supply of The Food Production Sector in Poland – Iwona Szczepaniak (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.1)
    • Food production in Poland is based mainly on the domestic raw material base, i.e. raw materials originating from domestic agriculture. Along with the development of the internationalization process of Polish food sector, the importance of imported raw materials has increased. During the period of Poland’s membership in the European Union the share of imported products in the total  raw material resources increased to over 1/3. These products are mainly raw materials from other climatic zones. The structure of raw material supply, i.e. use of domestic and imported raw materials is different in particular sectors of food production, due to the various conditions of their operation.
      KEY WORDS: food production, raw materials, agriculture, internationalization, import
  • 11 Food Industry on The Path of Stable Development – Jadwiga Drożdż, Robert Mroczek (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.2)
    • After a period of several years of stagnation, the production of the food industry in Poland has increased significantly.. Polish economic growth rate since 2017 accelerated to approx. 5%, and real wages (since 2015) to approx. 4%, which increased wealth of consumer portfolios. In 2018, the demand for food and non-alcoholic beverages and stimulants decreased, as well as the dynamics of retail sales of these products. The main factor behind the growth in sold production of the food industry is export, which in recent years has managed over 60% of the production growth. The financial result of all branches of the food industry has been positive for several years and the economic and financial situation has been good and stable. In 2018, the return on profitability and liquidity ratios between individual industries took place, but at the same time the diversification of their debt levels measured by the share of liabilities in the value of total assets deepened. The good condition of food industry enterprises was conducive to high investment activity, thanks to which these companies could effectively compete with many products not only on the EU market, but also on the global market.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, food, beverages, tobacco products, demand, production, profit
  • 18 The Use of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to Calculate the Environmental Footprint – EU Activities and The Food Industry – Barbara Gworek, Krzysztof Krygier (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.3)
    • The current actions of the European Commission show that the use of LCA from 2021 will be an obligatory standard for the following categories of products related to the food industry: fodder, pasta, bottled water, dairy products, animal feed, meat, skin, wine, beer, olive oil , detergents, coffee and marine fish. The LCA label will be a very important and mandatory marking, which, especially in cross-border trade, will improve the competitiveness of the product and therefore the company.
      KEY WORDS: life cycle analysis (LCA), environmental footprint, eco-labeling, food category, EU policy


  • 22 Properties of Powdered Baby Food – Anna Kot, Karolina Szulc, Anna Kamińska-Dwórznicka (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.4)
    • The aim of the work was to analyze selected properties of powdered baby food, produced by spray drying from homogenised oil-in-water emulsions. The research included six variants of powders, differing in the content and type of fatty and protein component. The powders were analyzed immediately after drying and after 2 and 4 months from the moment of production. The scope of the work  also included the morphology of the powders and the sorption isotherms. Both the protein and fat components had a significant impact on the properties of  powdered baby food.
      KEY WORDS: baby food, food powders, microencapsulation, storage time
  • 28 Polish Diet and Nutrition Recommendations – part 1 – Diana Wolańska-Buzalska, Klaudia Wiśniewska (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.5)
    • The basic nutritional recommendations for the Polish population were prepared by the experts of the Institute of Food and Nutrition and defined in simple 10 principles related to the Pyramid of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity. Available data indicate that in the most cases the knowledge of nutritional recommendations is not implemented in practice. Based on the latest data on food consumption and eating habits of Polish people, the implementation of nutritional recommendations was assessed by analyzing each of the principles of healthy nutrition. According to collected and analyzed data, the most common nutritional mistakes include: irregular eating, too low intake of vegetables and fruits, cereals, fish, milk and dairy products, and too high intake of meat, salt, sugar and sweets, sugary drinks, alcohol. There is a need to constantly monitor the implementation of nutritional recommendations by Polish population in practice and conducting effective nutrition education.
      KEY WORDS: diets, nutritional recommendations, food guide pyramid, nutrition behavior


  • 36 The Attempt to Use the Comparative Assessment of Commercial Products for Improving the Accuracy of Sensory Analysis Results – Joanna Danielczuk (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.6)
    • The attempt was made to use a comparative analysis of commercial products to minimize number of false-positive and false-negative results, i.e. to improve the method’s correctness. For a previously validated sensory method a procedure was proposed to increase the correctness of the results. Validated sensory method uses trained panel and is carried out in controlled environmental conditions. The method of increasing the correctness of results, shown in article, involves the comparative analysis of commercial samples of fruit and vegetable products can also be useful to minimize the number of false-positive and false-negative results or to improve correct results. A comparative analysis of commercial samples of fruit and vegetable products can also be helpful in determining more detailed characteristics of the method, including not only parameters for repeatability, but also parameters for sensitivity and selectivity, as in other quantitative analytical methods.
      KEY WORDS: sensory method, comparative analysis, false-positive and false-negative results, parameters of sensitivity and selectivity, parameters of corectness
  • 40 Coating Food with Powders – Agnieszka Marchewka, Ewa Domian (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.7)
    • The use of food coating technology for powders gives producers the opportunity to create a wide range of products with a variety of flavors and colors. The flagship example of using this technique are snacks with spread salt or various kinds of spice blends and functional ingredients. The article presents technological devices used in coating operations, such as coating drums and belt conveyors, including powder dosing systems. The electrostatic coating technique, which shows a higher coating efficiency compared to the conventional method, was characterized. Attention is paid to the properties of powders – size, shape, flowability, density and solubility – affecting the efficiency of the process. Problems occurring during coating, such as insufficient adhesion, dustiness, cohesiveness, clogging and surging, as well as methods of solving them are outlined
      KEY WORDS: powder coating, dry coating, electrostatic coating
  • 46 The Effect of The Drying Methods on Selected Physicochemical Properties of Strawberries – Piotr Grzegory, Dariusz Piotrowski, Emilia Janiszewska-Turak (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.8)
    • Strawberries are considered to be dietetic foods with valuable nutritional properties. One of the processes that has a very large impact on the later properties of plant raw materials is drying, which on the one hand extends the life of the raw material, but on the other can have a destructive effect on physicochemical properties. This article presents the influence of the drying method  on water content, water activity, mechanical properties, structure and colour of strawberries. The advantages of using vacuum drying result from the fact that it takes place without the use of air as a drying agent. Drying lyophilization has the slightest effect on the degradation of the aforementioned properties in strawberries. The lack of liquid phase and low drying temperature mean that most of the undesirable phenomena do not take place and as a result a high quality product is obtained.
      KEY WORDS: strawberries, drying, water content, water activity, mechanical properties, structure, colourElżbieta Polak
  • 54 Cold Chain in The Production and Storage of Food – Joanna Markowska, Elżbieta Polak (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.9)
    • The cold chain requires compliance with a temperature regime in the production, storage and transport of food. It is important to choose the optimum temperature for each product group and limits its fluctuations to a minimum at all stages of the cold chain. The article presents issues concerning widely understood refrigeration in the aspect of production processes and conditions of food storage. Selected issues related to processes and technologies including  changes in product quality, resulting from failure to maintain temperature stability and the impact of the cold chain on the environment are presented.
      KEY WORDS: cold chain, production, storage, foods, environment
  • 64 Designing Functional Craft Beers with Prohealth Properties – Katarzyna Gościnna, Jarosław Pobereżny, Elżbieta Wszelaczyńska, Sylwia Łaba, Krzysztof Świerczyński (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.10)
    • The aim of work was to develop a functional beer product with enhanced pro-health properties, through the use of unconventional additives that increase the antioxidant potential of the product. The basic product was Red Ale beer. The following functional additives were used: fresh herbs (lemon balm and thyme), goji berries and green tea extract. EBC analytical methods were used to determine the colour of beers. The pH and the content of: the total extract (expressed as degrees Plato), polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) were determined. A sensory evaluation was carried out involving eighty panellists using a five-point hedonic scale. All functional additives, with the exception of thyme, caused a slight brightening of the beers colour. The highest content of polyphenolic compounds in comparison with the basic Red Ale beer was obtained for beers with the addition of goji fruit and lemon balm, and the lowest for Red Ale beer with the addition of thyme. The largest increase in antioxidant activity was observed in lemon balm beer. However, the best in terms of taste turned out to be beer with the addition of green tea and goji fruit.
      KEY WORDS: beer, functional  additives, total phenols, antioxidant activity


  • 72 Edible Packaging and Disposable Dishes for Food – Iwona Szymańska, Anna Żbikowska, Katarzyna Marciniak-Łukasiak (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.8.11)
    • Demanding consumers, growing assortment of food products and excessive amount of waste in landfills are factors that contribute to many significant changes on the packaging market. Promising perspectives include biodegradable/hybrid plastics, intelligent/active packaging as well as edible packaging and disposable dishes. The basic ingredients of edible packaging are biopolymers – polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, e.g. pullulan, chitosan, starch, collagen, gluten, resins, beeswax. In recent years, various legislative activities, regarding packaging waste, are being undertaken in the European Union (the so-called Waste Package and the so-called Plastic Directive). From 2021, it is forbidden to marketing the 10 disposable products made of plastic (e.g. cutlery, plates, straws), and from 2025 all bottles of such material must be made of a minimum of 25% from material derived from recycling.
      KEY WORDS: packaging market, edible films and coatings, edible disposable dishes, Plastic Directive


  • 10 Air Products has completed the acquisition of ACP – European producer of carbon dioxide in the market of technical gases
  • 51 Cider – what is it?
  • 70 The role of refrigeration in the global economy
  • 70 Labeling of ‚Non-GMO’ products
  • 71 PET packaging – what changes will the bail system bring?
  • 79 From the work of the European Commission