Contents 7/2018; tome 72


  • 2 Retail Trade in Food Products in Poland – Urszula Kłosiewicz-Górecka (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.7.1)
    • The aim of the article is to identify innovative measures in retail trade in food products. The subject matter of an analysis comprises the importance of innovations and the type of innovations being implemented. The article was prepared basing on the literature in the area of commercial enterprises’ innovativeness and competitiveness as well as the results of the qualitative research among experts of the market for services and the quantitative research among service enterprises, including 319 commercial companies, carried out by the Institute for Market, Consumption and Business Cycles Research, the National Research Institute (In Polish: Instytut Badań Rynku, Konsumpcji i Koniunktur – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy) in December 2017. In the recent years, the sources of innovative solutions in trade have included information and communication technologies, changes in consumers’ purchasing preferences, and strong competition. A manifestation of innovative measures in retail trade in food products comprises digital distribution channels, interactive forms of communication with the customer, hybrid stores, smart devices in stores, and private labels of the new generation. The article is of the research nature.
      KEY WORDS: retail trade, food products, innovations, up-to-date information and communication technologies, digital distribution channels, JEL codes: D30, D40, L81, M31, O31
  • 7 Business Gazelles 2017 – Ranking of the Most Dynamically Developing Enterprises – Jadwiga Drożdż (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.7.2)
    • From among 4.362 Business Gazelles, there were 205 producers of food and drinks, including 128 debutants. These companies accounted for 4.7% of Business Gazelles, i.e. by 1 percentage point more than in the previous edition. In the ranking, almost all industries of food industry had their representatives, excluding sugar and tobacco as well as starch and wine branches. Traditionally, the meat production and the manufacture of other food products were the most represented sectors. The sales of Business Gazelles from the food industry accounted for 6.3% of revenues of the companies submitting financial statements, with employment share of 7.1% and financial result of 8.8%, achieving net profitability higher (by almost 2 percentage points) than the average in the food industry.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, small and medium-sized food enterprises, ranking of the most dynamic companies


  • 10 Reduced VAT Rates on Similar Food Products in the Light of the Principle of Tax Neutrality – Wiktor Podsiadło (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.7.3)
    • When establishing a system of reduced rates of VAT for food products, the legislator must respect the principle of tax neutrality stemming from the EU Directive 112. This means that different tax rates for similar goods should not be introduced. In the event of a breach of the above rule, the taxpayer will be entitled to apply a reduced rate in relation to the product he sells, similar to another product taxed with a reduced rate. At the same time, it seems that tax authorities and administrative courts are entitled to examine the similarity of goods during the interpretation and court-administrative proceedings resulting from a complaint on advance tax ruling.
      KEY WORDS: tax on goods and services, food products, reduced rates, the principle of neutrality


  • 14 Effectiveness of Traceability Systems. What Should We Pay Our Attention to? – Grzegorz Sokołowski
    • Traceability is used to locate defective or dangerous food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals or other products that are harmful to consumers on the market. Ensuring the safety of products delivered to the market related to gather and collect the data about them at every stage of the supply chain, in the other words, each company that participating in this supply chain. The article describes what affects the efficiency of the systems that support the traceability process in a company, and how the companies can increase the efficiency of these systems.
      KEY WORDS: traceability, GS1 standards, Automatic Data Capture, ADC, effectiveness, recall
  • 18 Beverage Producers Optimize and Standardize Logistics – Piotr Frąckowiak (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.7.4)
    • Supply chain management in the beverage industry is a complex issue; it is important to have full control over logistics processes by improving of identification, distribution and on-time deliveries. One of the solutions improving logistic processes in the supply chain is the GS1 logistic label, through which manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, retailers, carriers and logistic service providers can transfer information in a standardized and worldwide understandable way. Beverage companies, as facing the growth of the market, are looking for technical and organizational solutions that allow introducing the improvements within internal warehouses and in relations with contractors. Standardization in line with GS1 is extremely helpful here, and even indispensable in many cases. It is also results from the research. Many companies, especially those with a stable market position, are aware of the benefits of using GS1 standards and they implement IT technologies in the field of storage, to optimize their processes.
      KEY WORDS: GS1 standards, GS1 logistic label, warehouse management, process analysis, process improvement, automatic data collection system, ADC, beverage producers
  • 22 Mineral Oils in Food Packaging – Katarzyna Samsonowska, Alicja Kaszuba, Monika Kaczmarczyk (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.7.5)
    • Mineral oils are used as solvents in printing inks and may be present in packages containing cellulose fibers obtained from recycling. According to the EFSA mineral oils are classified as substances harmful to human health. Currently, there are no harmonized regulations at the EU level regarding migration limits of mineral oils, coming from packaging intended for contact with food. The analysis of oils is complex, it includes the following steps: extraction of mineral oils from the package, separation of aliphatic hydrocarbon MOSH fractions from the aromatic MOAH, and quantitative analysis of the particular fractions, using chromatographic techniques.
      KEY WORDS: mineral oils, paper and cardboard packaging, limit of specific migration


  • 26 Natural Preservatives from Microorganisms – Ewelina Pawlikowska, Dorota Kręgiel (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.7.6)
    • The increase in the production of food products poses a risk of the presence of artificial plant protection agents as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The level of microbiological contamination of food may be limited using different methods of treatment and addition of artificial preservatives. Unfortunately, the use of these artificial compounds also carries health risk; hence, the trends in the use of natural compounds in food preservation such as bacteriocins, killer toxins, ethanol or organic acids have been recognized as important for the consumers. Metabolites produced by microorganisms can effectively protect food against deterioration, and therefore, extend the shelf-life of products. However, the use of such compounds must be preceded by many studies on their biological activity and also, regulated by law, providing consumers with health safety of food.
      KEY WORDS: biocontrol, metabolites, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts
  • 30 Globe Artichoke – an Innovative Raw Material with a Wide Application – Monika Michalak-Majewska, Dorota Teterycz (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.7.7)
    • The artichoke is grown mainly in the Mediterranean countries and is also commonly consumed there. The rich artichoke properties allow for its use not only in gastronomy. Artichoke is a source of inulin with a high degree of polymerisation and a neutral taste, which allows it to be used in many foods to enrich them with fiber or as a fat substitute. Due to the high content of inulin, artichoke, after being inoculated with probiotic bacteria, may be also a synbiotic. Consuming such artichoke improves the digestive system. Artichoke enzymatic extracts contain proteolytic enzymes (cardiosin A and B). They are used in cheese production as a rennet replacement. Artichoke extracts, due to the high content of antioxidants (chlorogenic acid, cynarin), can be used as an antioxidant in food and may contribute to reduction of the level of HCA formation in thermally processed meat. Artichoke waste can be used to produce biogas with high methane content.
      KEY WORDS: globe artichoke, inulin, proteolytic enzymes, biogas


  • 34 Black Teas – Sensory Quality and Antioxidant Properties – Przemysław Dmowski , Karol Zakrzewski (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.7.8)
    • The present paper is set to analyze an influence of the brand of tea and flavour additive on the evaluation of sensory quality attributes, assessed by tea consumers and also on antioxidant activity and colour parameters (CIEL*a*b*). An attempt has also been made to designate attributes such as taste, aftertaste and color which reveal a statistically significant effect on the desirability of flavoured teas in terms of their tastiness and appearance. It was found, that the addition of the aromatic substances did not statistically significant influence on the antioxidative activity of researched samples of tea. The flavoured tea beverages with aroma additives of blackberry, blackcurrant, blueberry and raspberry were the most attractive for consumers. The lowest degree of desirability was characterized by the beverages of tea with aroma additives of cinnamon that was noted as the most astringent one. It was found that among the sensory quality attributes, the sweet flavour was indicated as the most important determinant of the sensory properties, being attractive of flavoured tea beverages.
      KEY WORDS: flavoured black tea, antioxidants, consumer evaluation, colour
  • 39 Role and Participation of Diet Supplements in Food of Adults – Dorota Wichrowska, Anna Walc, Tomasz Knapowski, Wojciech Kozera (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.7.9)
    • The main of the study was to identify the cause, type and size of dietary supplements used by 212 adults from the Kuyavian-Pomeranian region. According to self-reported studies, among adults at the age between 20-60 years, 73.5% of respondents used supplementation. From all of the respondents, over 51% were informed about dietary supplements from the media (internet, television, radio, newspapers). The main cause of dietary supplements in more than 46% of respondents was to alleviate the symptoms of illness and support their treatment, as well as to increase the resistance of the body, 18.8% of people used supplements to replenish vitamins and minerals, 15.6% feeling less at slimming support, at the doctor’s recommendation, to improve the appearance of the hair and nails’ skin, delaying the aging process, improving joints, improving mental efficiency and more. The most commonly used supplements by the people surveyed included vitamin, mineral and vitamin-mineral preparations consumed 1-2 times a week or less frequently. More than 72% of the respondents spent about 20 PLN per month on dietary supplements, the remaining – about 30 PLN and more. The majority of the respondents (over 64%) reported positive effects, although little used supplements, 24% did not see any positive effects, and 12% felt a significant improvement in their health.
      KEY WORDS: vitamin, mineral preparations, consumption level