Contents 7/2017; tome 71

Przemysł Spożywczy 7/2017ECONOMY

  • 2 Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in the Consumption of Food in Poland – Krystyna Świetlik (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.7.1)
    • The socio-economic transformation which has taken place in Poland during the recent dozen years has contributed to the quantitative and qualitative changes in the consumption of food. Changes in the level and structure of consumption of food during the period 2003-2015 in both macro- and micro-economic terms are presented in this paper together with an assessment of these changes. The data source was the balance sheet of agricultural products and the results of analyses of household expenditure according to GUS (Central Statistical Office). The analyses showed a decline in the volume of food consumed, a fall in the calorific content and an increase in the nutritional value of the average portion size. The results of the analyses show a change in the model of consumption and dietary preferences of Polish consumers. The Poles consume more highly processed convenience foods of higher quality which are time-saving in preparation, have an effect on the variety, and increase the nutritional value of the diet. The Poles eat more frequently outside their houses; they eat less but better and more expensively.
      KEY WORDS: food, consumption, structure, households
  • 8 Agri-food Industry in Declaration of the Visegrad Group Countries – Eugeniusz K. Chyłek (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.7.2)
    • The increase in the share of scientific-research background of the countries of the Central and Eastern Europe in the Program Horizon 2020 has become the premise for the initiative of the ministers of agriculture of the Visegrad Group and of Romania, Bulgaria and Slovenia in favour of the changes in the principles of the implemented scientific policy of the European Commission. Declaration GV 4+3, as being signed in 2016, has become the political premise for the European Commission when determining the measures in societal challenge SC2 of the Program Horizon 2020 for the years 2018-2020. In the paper, the key problems of agri-food sector as found in Declaration GV 4+3 and in the measures, contained in Strategy for Responsible Development, have been discussed.
      KEY WORDS: agri-food industry, Declaration of the Visegrad Group Countries, Horizon 2020, Strategy for Responsible Development, scientific-research background, innovations, development


  • 12 Digitalization of the Supply Chain. Common integration Platforms – Waldemar Osmólski (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.7.3)
    • In the age of rapid changes on the markets of the modern world, it is necessary to accelerate the flow of information between enterprises and economic organizations. This involves with elimination of barriers in the development and based on knowledge, digitization and innovation. Digitalisation of the business processes requires a systemic approach to build IT systems or common data sharing platforms based on strictly defined componential architecture such as the SOA model. It is also important not to forget about the standardization of the data exchange between companies based on universal formats, used in interoperable communications, such as e-Delivery and e-Freight. These solutions have been used in ILiM’s international e-Impact project included in the Connecting Europe Facility program. These problems may constitute the basis for applying the solutions in different areas of the economy, enabling the creation of an integrated ecosystem based on the transparency of processes between the involved actors.
      KEY WORDS: e-Impact, e-Delivery, SOA model, integrated IT platform, GS1 standards
  • 17 The Selected Risk Points of the Transported Food Products. Safety System. – Grzegorz Sokołowski
    • This article presents the issue of food safety from the perspective of selected problems that can be encountered in the transport processes of these products. The article focuses mainly on the traceability aspects of food products transported in the supply chain. In particular, the problems identified in the reception area to the distribution center and warehouse releases are described. Traceability is the ability to track (trace) the flow of goods in supply chains, including the registration of parameters identifying those goods and all locations covered by the flow.
      KEY WORDS: GS1 standards, transport, Automatic Data Capture, ADC, traceability, process analysis, Business Process Model and Notation, Global Traceability Standard


  • 18 Detection of Undesired Metal Elements in Food Products – Mariusz R. Rząsa (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.7.4)
    • The paper presents a new solution of the measuring system for detection of undesirable metal elements which can occur in food products. It is particularly important for the products in hermetic packages, such as sour cream, cheese or yoghurt. In such cases non-destructive and reliable tests must be applied. Moreover, some elements of the package are made of metal, and it is an additional difficulty. In this paper, the author presents a system using a electromagnetic method. Here, changes of inductance of measuring coils mounted in the integrated sensor are measured. The detector structure and the test results have been presented in the paper.
      KEY WORDS: metal detection, hermetic package, electromagnetic method, security system
  • 24 The survivability of probiotic bacteria as spray-dried in ¼-technical scale – Wioletta Krawczyńska, Katarzyna Sobecka, Małgorzata Mizielińska, Alicja Fedorowicz, Artur Bartkowiak, Joanna Odrzywolska, Dariusz Kiełczewski (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.7.5)
    • 4 different emulsions containing hydrophobic substances were used to preserve L. rhamnosus cells during spray drying. Microencapsulation of probiotics was performed in a ¼ technical-scale spray dryer at constant air inlet temperature of 180°C, outlet temp. 90°C with feed flow of 290 mL/h. The survivability of bacteria after drying was determined. The emulsion with pH 6.5 that consisted of starch, maltodextrin, arabic gum, lecithin, cocoa butter and rapeseed oil was the best preservative for L. rhamnosus cells after drying due to the lowest decrease of survivability of probiotic bacteria.
      KEY WORDS: L. rhamnosus, spray drying in ¼ technical scale, cocoa butter
  • 28 The Selected Applications of Carbon Dioxide in the Food Industry – Emilia Janiszewska-Turak, Dominika Sierszak, Maria Hankus, Zbigniew Pałacha(DOI:10.15199/65.2017.7.6)
    • Carbon dioxide is a substance naturally occurring on Earth in small quantities. It is a non-polar gas, completely non-toxic, non-corrosive and, due to high volatility, easily removable from the product. Moreover, it is characterized by a high diffusion coefficient allowing deep penetration of the substrate to obtain from the raw material all the desired ingredients. Carbon dioxide is characterized by low viscosity and low critical values (t = 31.1°C, P = 7.39 MPa). Thanks to these properties, it has been widely used in the food industry. Owing to its properties, it has been widely employed for cryogenic freezing, modified atmosphere packaging, saturation of beverages and wine or preservation of the dairy products. In addition, the use of dry ice is a quick and effective method of cleaning in each case where there is no possibility of applying water or aggressive chemicals. Moreover, supercritical carbon dioxide allows the extraction of valuable plant components and supercritical micronization to obtain a solid state.
      KEY WORDS: LIC freezing, cooling, MAP packaging, supercritical extraction, stunning


  • 33 Freshwater Crayfish in Poland – Raw Material Potential, Nutritional Values, Technological Aspects – Natalia Śmietana, Remigiusz Panicz, Przemysław Śmietana(DOI:10.15199/65.2017.7.7)
    • More than ever, today processing industry seeks for new solutions to extract various products from diverse organisms, which due to numerous and problematic issues (constant availability, lack of technological solutions, handling and processing problems) were abandoned in the past. Within this group, species of freshwater crayfish play a substantial role, and in Poland four species from this group exist: noble crayfish (Astacus astacus), narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus (Pontastacus) leptodactylus), spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) and signal crayfish (Pacifastacus lenisculus). Growing expectations of the contemporary customers and innovative technological solutions lead to situation in which crayfish are regarded as potential source of edible and inedible raw materials. Crayfish flesh has a low fat content (0.8-2.8%) and is relatively rich in protein (18-20%). However, due to low meat share (12-18%) science and industry initiatives quest for efficient methods to utilize by-products as, to a some extent, it was designed for processing of carapace (biopolymer chitosane, pigment astaxanthin) and protein concentrates produced from extracted soft parts of crayfish. In order to fully evaluate availability of crayfish raw material it is crucial to define year-round availability of crayfish, develop or redesign technological solutions to extract crayfish meat and process by-products, and what most important perform an economic analysis.
      KEY WORDS: noble crayfish, Astacus astacus, by-products, chitosane, astaxanthin
  • 38 Fish as a Source of Human Exposure to the Mercury – Małgorzata Ćwieląg-Drabek, Danuta Rogala, Ilona Hajok, Grzegorz Dziubanek (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.7.8)
    • The consumption of predatory fish and seafood is by far the most significant source of ingestion-related mercury exposure in humans. Mercury is particularly dangerous for children, pregnant and lactating women. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure to mercury, getting to the human body with the most commonly consumed fish. The Hg concentration was determined by PSA Millennium Merlin mercury analyzer in 39 samples of most commonly consumed fresh and processed fish. The highest average mercury concentrations were reported in fresh fish whereas the lowest one in canned fish. The normative value was exceeded in case of cod and burbot (Lota lota) . In Poland fish consumption at the current level is not a threat by mercury, in the case of consumption of most fish species present on the Polish market. It is recommended to replace in the diet fish like cod and burbot by fish cumulating lower amounts of mercury, indicated in the study.
      KEY WORDS: mercury, fish, exposure