Contents 7/2015; tome 69

Przemysł Spożywczy 7/2015ECONOMY

  • 2 The Impact of the Russian Ban on Polish Agri-food Trade – Łukasz Ambroziak
    • The aim of the article is to assess the impact of embargo, imposed on agri-food imports to Russia (i.e. from the European Union) on Polish trade in agri-food products in 2014. Year 2014 was difficult for Polish food producers, especially for pork, fruit (mainly apples) and vegetable producers. Due to a block on Polish pork exports by some countries and Russian embargo, food producers in Poland had to take steps to diversify their markets. The foreign trade results show that the undertaken actions have brought positive effects. The Polish exports of agri-food products increased in 2014 by 4.5% in comparison to the previous year. To minimise the negative consequences of potentially demand shocks on the food markets in the future, the further market diversification is needed.
      KEY WORDS: foreign trade, agri-food products, Poland, Russia, embargo
  • 8 Expansion Abroad. Where to Look for Help and Support Exports?


  • 10 Robotization in Food Production and Packaging Processes – Grzegorz Gołda, Adrian Kampa
    • This article describes the issues relating to the application of industrial robots in the food industry; also, a few examples of solutions connected with the production and with packaging of food have been discussed. The attention was paid to the specific nature of the processes in the food industry and the requirements associated with it. The market conditions and perspectives related to the application of robotization in the food industry were presented.
      KEY WORDS: robotization, industrial robot, manipulation, palletization, packaging
  • 15 HACCP and BRC Systems – a Comparison – Krzysztof Przystupa
    • In the European Union there are several standards of safety and quality management of food products. The most frequently used standards include: HACCP, BRC, IFS and the system based on standard ISO 22000. In the text, two food safety standards were compared. The author discusses the HACCP system (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) and BRC (British Retail Consortium). The differences and common characteristics have been indicated. Additionally, the most common problems that arise during the implementation of these systems have been discussed.
      KEY WORDS: quality management, food safety management systems, HACCP, BRC, ISO


  • 18 GS1 standards, as employed in the improvement of warehouse storage processes. Good Practice – Grzegorz Sokołowski
    • The potential related to application of GS1 standards and, in particular, GS1 logistic label in order to improve company processes is still not employed on the Polish market. The article presents the opportunities and benefits offered by the more comprehensive use of standards for identification in the warehouse management. In the logistic processes of companies, as well as in the whole supply chain, GS1 logistic label is a very important tool for identification and data collection. This tool is used to describe a logistic unit in a standard manner according to the rules of the GS1 System for the needs of all participants in the supply chain.
      KEY WORDS: GS1 standards, Automatic Data Capture, ADC, logistics label
  • 22 E-trade of food – sale and identification of products – Jacek Pucher
    • E-commerce is one of the most dynamically developing areas of the economy. In the recent years the mentioned sales development via Internet was also recorded in the Polish food retail network sector. This development of e-commerce is also accompanied by the introduction of new regulations that include obligations for distant sellers. With the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council 1169/2011, the EU introduced new requirements for food operators. In case of online selling all obligatory label information must be also published on websites. This new situation caused a lot of challenges for product identification. It became a subject of international discussion within GS1 – the organization responsible for developing standards in this area. As a result of this debate, new recommendations were developed and adopted. They were also accepted by representatives of Polish retail sector, working in the joint GS1 and ECR FIR National Working Group.
      KEY WORDS: e-commerce, distant food selling, GS1 standards, GTIN, product identification
  • 26 Biodegradable Packaging for Food – Hanna Żakowska
    • Term biodegradation of package means the end of its life cycle through complete degradation of material by microorganisms, resulting from enzymatic reactions occurring in a specified period of time. Packages intended for processing by bioprocesses (organic recycling) have to be tested to confirm fulfillment of industrial composting requirements. Production of packaging made from biodegradable polymers started in year 1995 and now they are in common use and the range of possible applications is wide. Many of them meet the requirements of health quality and are designed for food products. According to the European Bioplastics analysis, use of biodegradable materials in the years 2007-2010 was found on the level of 100-350 thousand tons. In the years 2013-2014, production capacity increased to 600 thousand tons, and in the years 2017-2018 it should reach the level of 1 million tones. Due to its characteristic, growing capacity and price, the following products deserve attention: a group of polylactides of NatureWorks, a group of polymer-starch composition under the brand MateriBi, new generation cellulose films by Natureflex and polymer compositions Ecoflex and Ecovio.
      KEY WORDS: food packaging, biodegradable packaging, organic recycling, composting
  • 32 Wholesale Trade in Poland – the Present State and Directions of its Development – Urszula Kłosiewicz-Górecka
    • The aim of the article is to identify forms of wholesale trade in food and to describe the processes occurring in the area of wholesale trade as well as to determine directions of development of wholesale trade with food in Poland. The subject of analysis includes forms of wholesale trade and measures undertaken by wholesale trade enterprises in order to increase their competitiveness in the market such as vertical and horizontal integration, development of private brands, and extension of the scope of services rendered to business partners. The time span of considerations covers the years 2009-2014 being the period of dynamic changes in the structures of trade in food in Poland. In the article, the author used research methods such as the statistical data analysis and scientific description of processes. The following materials were also employed: CSO (Central Statistical Office) data, various secondary sources such as articles, papers as well as statements announced by wholesale trade representatives during conferences and published in the business press. Also, the results of own research and observations of functioning of wholesale trade enterprises were utilized. The article is of the analytical and descriptive nature.
      KEY WORDS: wholesale trade, consolidation, forms of wholesale trade


  • 36Vitamin A – Function and Importance for Human – Agnieszka Zaborska, Jolanta Król, Aneta Brodziak
    • Vitamin A plays an important role in many physiological processes occurring in the human body. First of all, it is known for the participation in the process of correct vision (its basic form – retinol). Vitamin A participates in the growth and differentiation of the cells in the body, maintains the skin, hair and nails in a good condition, eliminates discoloration caused by sunlight, stimulates the production of collagen and elastin in the dermal layer, regulates the function of sebaceous glands, fastens the healing process of epidermis, and cures the skin disorders (acne and psoriasis). Animal products are the sole source of vitamin A, and especially oily fish, liver, milk, dairy products and eggs. Carotenoids, being precursors of vitamin A, are present in vegetables and fruits. In Poland there is no greater danger of vitamin A deficiency in the diet, but the consumption of greater and greater quantities of low-fat or fat-free products by the modern consumer may lead to such phenomenon.
      KEY WORDS: vitamin A, biological functions, dietary recommendations, dietary sources
  • 39 Fats and Margarine – Uncertainty of Choice Occurring not Only on the Consumer’s Side – Beata Marchand


  • 41 80th of Witold Pereta
  • 42 Creativity in Manufacture of Alcohol Drinks
  • 43 The Biggest Food Fair
  • 44 Components Under the Magnifying Glass of Consumers

44 Advances in Food Engineering