Contents 7/2013

okładka Przemysł Spożywczy 7/2013ECONOMY

  • 2 Changes in Retail and Wholesale Trade – Urszula Kłosiewicz-Górecka
    • An objective of the article is to present the changes that have taken place in retail and wholesale trade as well as to identify the consequences they have for manufacturers of food products. The scope of analysis comprised the large trade object chains, independent and integrated retail trade as well as wholesale trade. The subject of analysis includes changes taking place in 2008-2012 in the strategy of development of individual formats of retail and wholesale trade and their impact on relationships with suppliers of food products. The article is prepared on the basis of the literature concerning formats of retail and wholesale trade as well as cooperation of enterprises in distribution channels and findings of longitudinal surveys on relationships of enterprises in food distribution channels implemented by the Institute for Market, Consumption and Business Cycles Research.
      KEY WORDS: relationships, distribution channels, independent retail trade, integrated retail trade


  • 10 Technical Equipment Warehouses Food Processing. Industrial Trucks – Adam Wojciechowski
    • Food processing industry requires transportation, handling and storing of fast moving goods. Nowadays, the implementation of these tasks involves mechanization of work and utilization of suitable buildings and warehouse appliances for their storage, ensuring proper storing conditions. The paper presents the most frequently used industrial trucks and other transport equipment, specifying their advantages and drawbacks.
      KEY WORDS: warehouse, storage, intra-factory transport, industrial trucks
  • 14 Best Business Practices in the Warehouse Management Processes Dedicated for the Food Industry – Anna Kosmacz-Chodorowska
    • Developing best business practices in the warehouse management processes is carried out within the international and local GS1 Working Groups that exchange their experience and work results. The purpose of the GS1 Working Group dedicated to the food industry, is to provide the information on how to meet the new requirements by using the most effective and reliable solutions regarding warehouse management and relations between all participants of the supply chain.
      KEY WORDS: best business practices, GS1 Working Groups, global standards, barcodes, ADC systems, EDI, food industry


  • 22 Fluid Flow Conditions in Channel Between Plates of Heat Exchangers. Cleaning in the CIP System – Joanna Piepiórka-Stepuk
    • This paper is a continuation of earlier papers, which discuss the problems associated with keeping hygiene in the dairy industry, with special emphasis on cleaning-in-flow of plate heat exchangers. However, the purpose of this study is to focus on one of the key factors determining the effectiveness of cleaning in the flow, i.e. flow conditions of cleaning solutions. The wide research of the literature, both experimental and numerical, defining the nature of the flow and velocity distributions in channels between the plates of heat exchangers was carried out.
      KEY WORDS: cleaning conditions, fluid flow, CIP system, plate heat exchanger
  • 26 The Risk of Occurence of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Honeys – Małgorzata Materska, Renata Czeczko, Monika Karaś
    • Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a broad group of natural toxins that are synthethized by more than six thousand plant species in different geographic regions. Due to the toxicity of these compounds, many countries have introduced legal restrictions on the use of raw materials containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the food industry and pharmacy. However, presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food industry on the world and Europe is still detected. The paper presents the current state of knowledge on pyrrolizidine alkaloids including the Polish food market. Particular emphasis is placed on the possible presence of these compounds in honey and products based on pollen.
      KEY WORDS: pyrrolizidine alkaloids, toxicity, food
  • 30 Usage of Caffeine in Food Production – the Legal and Health – Regina Wierzejska
    • Caffeine for a few years has become a popular ingredient of foodstuffs. Apart from flavouring properties, caffeine is more and more often used as physiological substance. There is a limit of the dose of caffeine using as flavouring, however there is no regulation concerning the addition of caffeine as psychoactive substance. Apart from the beneficial influence of caffeine on the body, negative health effects resulting from excessive consumption should also be considered. The new legal regulations obligate food producers to place some warning information for consumers from the risk group.
      KEY WORDS: caffeine, food, food law, health


  • 34 Sodium Chloride Consumption in Relation to the Contemporary Nutritional Recommendations – Monika Michalak-Majewska, Waldemar Gustaw, Aneta Sławińska, Wojciech Radzki
    • The main cause of hypertension is the excessive intake of sodium, occurring in processed food products (sodium chloride). It is used in home for salting and in processed foods for technological reasons and taste. Because of the overuse of salt and the associated risk of civilization diseases, international organizations and national institutions recommend limiting salt intake to 5 g per day for protecting and promotion of public health. In Hungary, the intake of salt is the highest in Europe, whereas in Poland, the consumption exceeds the standards almost three times. On the contrary, the lowest intake is recorded in France, the Netherlands and Finland. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that a reduction in daily intake of sodium by 50 mmol (2.9 g salt) will result in a 22% decrease in deaths from stroke and 16% of ischemic heart disease.
      KEY WORDS: sodium, sodium chloride, table salt, modern nutritional recommendations
  • 38 Type 2 Diabetes. Part II. Food Products Recommended for the Diabetics – Aleksandra Cichocka
    • The diet is an inseparable part of a diabetic’s treatment. Proper nutrition is of primary importance in both preventing and treating the chronic complications from diabetes, and to attain a general state of good health. All patients should be taught about proper nutrition. This article presents the amounts of selected nutrients recommended by the Polish Diabetes Association (PTD) for such a diet so that the goals of the Association-designed dietary regimen may be met. The Mediterranean diet has a positive effect in preventing and treating both diabetes and the cardiovascular disease that threatens diabetics. As WHO/FAO experts have indicated a need for Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBGD) preparing, this article presents, as recommended for diabetics, a choice of food products from particular groups of the Healthy Nutrition Pyramid. The food industry can play a significant role in simplifying this choice.
      KEY WORDS: diabetic diet, food products recommended for the diabetic’s diet, Polish Diabetes Association, nutrition recommendations, Healthy Nutrition Pyramid


  • 41 Business Information
  • 44 Poland – Union – World