Contents 6/2018; tome 2018

ECONOMY

  • 2 Environmental Footprint and Its Importance to the Market Products and Organizations – Eugeniusz Karol Chyłek, Katarzyna Chyłek, Katarzyna Orzechowska, Agata Sosińska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.6.1)
    • In April 2013 the European Commission (EC) published a communication in which it set out the main directions of development of the market for environment-friendly products. In the opinion of the EC, the participation of the products with efficient resource consumption in the market is currently found at a low level, in spite of the possibility of supplying such products by the manufacturers and increasing demand among the consumers. According to the EC, the main barriers are: the lack of a common definition of an environmentally friendly product, excessive costs of „legalizing” environment-friendly products on the market, the existence of different standards to obtain the credentials of the eco-friendly environment in the EU Member States, as well as the lack of consumer confidence in environmental indications. A tool intended to improve this situation is to develop an improved, uniform way of measuring the environmental performance of products and the organization and the principles of information about it.
      KEY WORDS: environmental footprint, product, organization, European Union, Poland, agri-food sector
  • 7 Fruit and Vegetable Processing in Poland – Bożena Nosecka, Iwona Szczepaniak (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.6.2)
    • In the paper, the level and the changes in the volume and value of production as well as exports, imports and the balance of foreign trade in fruit and vegetable products and their groups in 2012-2017, were characterized. The economic and financial situation of the fruit-vegetable industry enterprises was also presented. The subject of the assessment was also the position of the Polish fruit-vegetable industry in the European Union. The analysis shows that during the mentioned period, the upward trend in production, export and import of almost all processed products has been observed since Poland’s accession to the EU. Similarly, the balance of fruit and vegetable products turnovers has remained highly positive. Financial results of enterprises were stable and ensured their operational safety. Poland – in terms of the value of production of processed fruits and vegetables – was found on the sixth place in the European Union.
      Key words: fruit-vegetable industry, production, foreign trade, financial results, Poland, European Union

LAW

  • 13 Nutrition Labelling of Alcoholic Beverages. What Should be on the Label? – Dominika Jeżewska, Grażyna Osęka, Iwona Kowalczyk-Andrzejewska
    • Nutrition labelling of alcoholic beverages is currently under legislative discussions at the national and the EU level.  Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EU) No 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers does not oblige the producers of alcoholic beverages containing more than 1.2% by volume of alcohol to provide the list of ingredients and nutrition declaration on the label. However, some Member States have adopted national rules with additional requirements in this respect. Poland may soon become another country with such regulations. The article discusses mandatory particulars to be included on the labels of alcoholic beverages, as well as current work by the European Commission and Polish Ministry of Health on amending the labelling of alcoholic beverages. It also presents the guiding principles developed by the European producers of spirits, wine, beer and cider, who have committed, through self-regulation, to provide ingredients and nutrition information on the labels of their products.
      KEY WORDS: food labelling, alcoholic beverages, nutrition declaration, EU and national law

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 16 Challenge Tests – Predicting and Eliminating Potential Microbiological Risks. Listeria monocytogenes in Food – Anna Zadernowska, Wioleta Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Marek Zadernowski, Arkadiusz Zakrzewski, Urszula Zarzecka (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.6.3)
    • Food producers are legally responsible for the safety of their products, including also microbiological safety. Producers are also required to define and validate shelf life, which is an integral part of the food safety management system. Challenge tests are a helpful tool in risk analysis. They are based on the assessment of growth or survival abilities of microorganisms added into the product – in the laboratory conditions – which during the storage under various reasonably predictable conditions may cause a risk to the consumer safety. The article provides guidelines on the application of challenge tests in accordance with the European Union Reference Laboratory for Listeria monocytogenes.
      KEY WORDS: challenge tests, Listeria monocytogenes, potential growth, food safety
  • 19 Microbiological Risk in Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables – Katarzyna Czaczyk, Anna Dobrowolska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.6.4)
    • The lot of attention in consumption of minimally processed fruit and vegetables has been observed recently. This situation may be a hazard to humans, caused by high microbiological contamination of these products.  According to actual regulations for microbiological quality of fruits and vegetables, the presence of bacteria from the genus Salmonella, presence or number of Listeria monocytogenes, presence of verotoxic Escherichia coli (sprouted seeds) and number of Escherichia coli (hygienic status of foods) should be determined. The reason for food-borne outbreaks may be also other pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas or noroviruses. Furthermore, there is no correlation between detection of pathogenic bacteria in food and food-borne outbreaks.
      KEY WORDS: minimally processed fruits and vegetables, microbiological quality
  • 23 Quinoa – Not Just Inka’s Treasure – Alina Pacesz, Anna Sip (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.6.5)
    • Quinoa is a valuable source of a very well-balanced protein. Moreover, it is characterised by a low glycemic index and no-gluten content. Other important quinoa components include unsaturated fatty acids, fiber, vitamins (C, B2, folic acid, vitamin E and carotene), minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn) and also anti-oxidants. Quinoa is a good component of the diet especially for vegetarians and celiac patients. On the market it is available as roasted or expanded grains, component of cereals as well as groats, flour or plant milk. Quinoa is used as raw material for production of bakery goods, pasta, gluten-free snacks and dairy-free puddings. It can also be fermented to improve its nutritional value.
      KEY WORDS: quinoa, nutritive value, fermentation

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 28 Food Waste in Retail Chains – Bartłomiej Kulisz
  • 31 Consumer Preferences on the Non-Alcoholic Beverage Market – Stanisław Kalisz, Anna Grobelna, Bartosz Kruszewski, Andrzej Mazurkiewicz (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.6.6)
    • In the article, the current trends on the market of non-alcoholic beverages in Poland have been described. The research was carried out on group of 105 persons and showed consumer preferences on the market of non-alcoholic beverages. It has been also specified what types of beverages are consumed regularly. It has been also shown what criteria the consumers consider when choosing drinks. It is discussed how the consumers perceive particular assortment groups on the market of non-alcoholic beverages. It is also indicated how new products are perceived in this group. It is also presented what types of products in the group of non-alcoholic beverages consumers would be expected  to appear on the market.
      KEY WORDS: non-alcoholic beverages, juices, nectars, consumer preferences
  • 36 Contemporary Trends in the Consumption of Selected Cereal Products – Marlena Pielak, Ewa Ołubiec-Opatowska, Ewa Czarniecka-Skubina, Danuta Jaworska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.6.7)
    • The aim of the work was to present contemporary trends in the consumption of the selected cereal products in Poland. The survey questionnaires were conducted in 2017 year on the group of 1330 consumers from the Mazovian province. They concerned the kinds and the frequency of consumption of cereal products and their culinary usage. On the basis of the results of the conducted studies it was affirmed that the most popular cereal products consumed by studied respondents were corn and oat flakes and muesli. White rice was more popular than groats. Among the most commonly consumed groats, usually once a month, respondents mentioned buckwheat and barley. The respondents usually use groats, rice and pasta as the element of the soups, or additives to second dinner dish. Rye bread was equally popular as wheaten bread. Health-promoting types of bread, dietetics and crisp bread were less popular among the respondents.
      KEY WORDS: cereal products, consumer preferences, dishes
  • 40 Patients Knowledge on Gluten-Free Diet and Gluten Content in Food Products. Survey Research – Anna Jędrusek‑Golińska, Dorota Piasecka‑Kwiatkowska, Marzanna Hęś, Marta Burzyńska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.6.8)
    • Clear identification of safe products is a problem for patients using a gluten-free diet. The aim of the study was to investigate the hidden sources of gluten among the people using a gluten-free diet and to check the safety of the selected products based on the composition given on the label and laboratory analysis. The survey questionnaire was a tool for studying dietary behaviors. The presence of gluten in 14 samples was checked by Western Blotting and ELISA. Most of the respondents declared compliance with the gluten-free diet; however, 37.5% of the respondents with non-celiac gluten sensitivity and 64.3% with celiac disease read the regulation of the label of purchased food products. The presence of gluten at the level above 20 ppm was found in 3 tested products. Despite the obligation to declare the presence of gluten in foods and dishes, there are still articles in the trade that do not have the appropriate information on the labels. To ensure the safety of sick consumers, it is necessary to clearly indicate the presence of gluten on the packaging and to persuade them to read labels of food products.
      KEY WORDS: gluten free diet, hidden sources of gluten, consumer awareness