Contents 6/2017; tome 71

Przemysł Spożywczy 6/2017ECONOMY

  • 2 Potential Impact of TTIP Agreement on Polish Agri-Food Trade with the United States – Małgorzata Bułkowska (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.6.1)
    • The aim of the article is to analyze Poland’s trade with the United States and to assess the potential impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) on Polish agri-food trade with the United States. The entry of TTIP into force would increase export opportunities for Polish food producers, but also would facilitate an access to the Polish market for American food products. As a result of the abolition of customs barriers, producers of chocolate products, apple concentrate, meat and fish preserves, vodkas, fruit preserves and fruit and vegetable freezers would gain on increased export. It would be beneficial for the EU market to increase imports from the US of high protein feed, southern fruits and their preparations, fish and fish products.
      KEY WORDS: Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), foreign trade, agri-food products, Poland, United States
  • 8 Business Gazelles 2016 – Ranking of the Most Dynamically Developing Enterprises of Food Industry – Jadwiga Drożdż (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.6.2)
    • In the seventeenth edition of the Business Gazelles, 164 food and beverage producers were listed, of which 85 are newcomers. The listed food companies accounted for 3.7% of all Gazelles, and their position in subsequent editions of this ranking systematically decreased. Food Business Gazelles represented almost all food industries, except sugar, oil, spirits, wine and tobacco. The meat industry, food concentrates and fruit and vegetable sectors were the most representative of the previous years. The most dynamic food companies accounted for 6.8% of reporting entities, employing 6.4% of the workforce in the sector, generating 5.5% of sales and nearly 8% of after-tax profit, achieving a higher net profit than the food industry average.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, small and medium-sized food enterprises, ranking of the most dynamic companies

LAW

  • 14 Superfood – Legal and Nutritional Aspects – Anna Gramza-Michałowska, Bartosz Kulczyński, Marzena Grdeń (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.6.3)
    • The recent years have been characterized by the dynamic development of new food trends, among which the trend of consuming superfood seems to be the most popular. The food market offers a variety of raw materials and products that are advertised as remedies for dietary mistakes, improper lifestyle, and offering the consumer a wellbeing and longevity. Despite the promotion of exotic superfood products, a special attention should be paid to the local market, offering a wide range of products with high nutritional and health-promoting benefits.
      KEY WORDS: superfood, bioactive compounds, health-promoting effect

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 18 Uncontrolled Emissions of Methane into the Atmosphere – Magdalena Wróbel-Jędrzejewska, Urszula Stęplewska, ElżbietaPolak  (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.6.4)
    • In the article, methane is characterized as a greenhouse gas. The changes in its emissions to the atmosphere over time and according to source are discussed. Difficulties with identification of actual methane emissions are identified. The essence of research, aiming to control the emission of methane from agriculture, are also proven, in order to take appropriate measures to limit the greenhouse gases emissions, coming from this sector.
      KEY WORDS: methane emission, greenhouse gases, agriculture
  • 26 Microbiological Purity of Selected Dried Herbs – Izabela Podgórska (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.6.5)
    • The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological purity of the selected dried herbs derived from the purchase point located in the Lubelskie voivodeship, i.e. mint, melissa, nettle, sage and marigold. Total bacterial count, the number of yeasts and molds, E. coli bacteria were determined and the analysis for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus was performed. There was found in the study that the total number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria ranged from 103 to 108 cfu·g-1, the number of yeasts ranged from 102 to 104 cfu·g-1, and the number of molds reached 103 to 105 cfu·g-1. E. coli bacteria were found in herbs of mint and nettle at the level of 102 cfu·g -1. In any of the tested samples, there was no presence of Salmonella sp. and S. aureus.
      KEY WORDS: microbiological purity, herbs, bacteria, yeasts, molds
  • 29 Quality Requirements for Juices – Barbara Groele
    • The term “juice” covers a wide range of products – there is a significant diversity in this group, depending on the ingredients used and the technology of production employed. In the European Union, fruit and tomato juices are protected by specific regulations. The most important document defining the requirements concerning authorized ingredients, treatments, substances and additives used in production was the “Juice Directive” (2001/112/EC) supplemented by Directive 2012/12, implemented in Poland by the way of regulations of the Minister of Agricultural and Rural Development. The strict legal requirements, the existing technical documents concerning the evaluation of juices with regard to quality, authenticity and identity (the AIJN Code of Practice) and the effective industrial self-control in Poland (The Voluntary System of Juice and Nectar Control, DSK) guarantee high quality and allow elimination of non-compliances. This is especially important when considering that consumers are on the lookout for genuine, high quality products, and – according to the Food and Nutrition Institute – a glass of juice may as well be one of the prescribed five-a-day servings of fruit and vegetables.
      KEY WORDS: juices, fruits, vegetables, Juice Directive
  • 32 Application of Berry Juice for the Production of High Quality Dried Apples – Hanna Kowalska, Kinga Czajkowska, Katarzyna Łukasik (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.6.6)
    • Enrichment of dried fruit during osmotic pre-treatment is a new way of enhancing the attractiveness of dried fruit products. It creates the opportunities for designing the products with desired properties, such as colour, taste, the contents of bio-components, without chemical preservation. Dried fruit, as obtained by hybrid drying method with “puffing” effect were assessed higher than freeze-dried fruit. The addition of juices, especially chokeberry juice concentrate, to the sucrose solution protected the contents of polyphenolic compounds. A partial replacement of sucrose solution by berry fruit juice during osmotic dehydration prior drying caused a significant anthocyanins’ content increase, up to 13-fold higher. Hybrid way (convective-microwave-vacuum) drying with “puffing” effect is a good alternative to freeze-drying The process is more economical, mainly due to the duration and also allows to obtain similar or higher quality dried fruits.
      KEY WORDS: osmotic dewatering, enriched dried fruits, freeze-drying, hybrid drying
  • 36 Steviol Glycosides – Technological Properties and their Application in Market Products – Marlena Pielak, Ewa Czarniecka-Skubina (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.6.7)
    • The aim of this paper is to present the technological properties of steviol glycosides, the possibilities of their use in food products, as well as the assessment of the availability of products with glycosides on the Polish market. The technological properties of steviol glycosides were discussed on the basis of literature data. The availability of sweeteners and other food products containing steviol glycosides was determined on the basis of the offer of the selected retail stores and on-line sales. On the example of the Warsaw market offer, it can be stated that there is a small assortment of products with steviol glycosides on the Polish market. It mainly includes sweeteners, chocolate products and soft drinks, whose energy value (calories) has been decreased by an average of about 30%. It seems that the market of products sweetened with steviol glycosides has a great potential to be further developed.
      KEY WORDS: food market, food, steviol glycosides, properties
  • 41 Peanuts (Arachis hipogea L.) – the Effect of Heating on their Properties – Agnieszka Sagan (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.6.8)
    • The study evaluated the effect of thermal processes on the quality of the lipid fraction and the nutritional value of peanut protein. Peanut samples were subjected to thermal treatment in a laboratory drying oven at a temperature of 100, 120, 140 and 160oC for 20 minutes. To assess changes in the peanut lipid fraction occurring during the heat treatment, the acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), and oxidative stability were determined. The effect of heating on the protein nutritional value was assessed by determination of the content of reactive lysine. The properties of the peanut lipid fraction were dependent on the parameters of the thermal treatment. The peroxide value and oxidative stability changed depending on the temperature of the process, whereas the acid value was not altered. Reactive lysine proved to be relatively stable in the conditions of the process applied, but there was a significant decline in its content at 160ºC.
      KEY WORDS: peanuts, oxidative stability, Rancimat test, reactive lysine

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 44 Amaranth – its Chemical Composition and Health-Promoting Value – Ewelina Łysoń, Wioletta Biel (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.6.9)
  • The effects of globalization and the observed unification of food production around the world have limited the number of cultivated plant species. To counteract this trend, new plants – previously not used on a massive scale, but with a proven nutritional value – have been introduced in commercial agriculture. This group includes one of the oldest cultivated plants, belonging to the genus Amaranthus L. The value of amaranth depends mainly on the unique chemical composition of its seed. The chemical composition of leaves is also very interesting and presents significant nutritional value. The content of high quality protein in the leaves amounts to 28% of dry matter. The entire amaranth plant contains biologically active components such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenyl acids, which are responsible for the plants’ pharmacological properties. Many research studies confirm the health-promoting effects of amaranth.
    KEY WORDS: amaranth, chemical composition, health-promoting properties