Contents 6/2014



  • 2 The Competitiveness of Polish Fruits and Vegetables on Foreign Markets – Bożena Nosecka
    • The paper shows competitive position of horticultural sector and the selected groups of horticultural products on the world market. The study is based on an analysis of indicators of external competitiveness (balance of trade, trade coverage (TC), import penetration, real comparative advantage and share in foreign trade). According to the conducted analysis in the period of 2010-12 competitive position improved in relation to the period of 2001-2003 in respect of the most of the products concerned. It was supported by a favourable situation on external markets (lack of clear upward tendencies as regards production and exports in competing countries) as well as by relatively large use of the EU support as regards of concentration of export supply, quality improvement and production efficiency.
      KEY WORDS: horticultural sector, horticultural products, external competitiveness, indicators of competitiveness
  • 9 Alcoholic Beverages Market. Current Situation and Development Trends – Paweł Wyrzykowski
    • Based on CSO data, it can be estimated that the value of the domestic market for alcoholic beverages in 2012 amounted to 37.7 billion PLN and it was only 2.5% nominally higher than in 2009, in constant prices decreased by 1.1%. The market saturation is manifested by the low increase of the prices and consumption of alcoholic beverages. The share of alcohol in agri-food products’ export is low (1.6%) and the foreign trade balance is negative (in 2013 amounted to 190.2 million euro). In this situation, the development of alcoholic beverages market requires innovative actions in the areas of production, promotion on domestic and foreign markets and search for the new potential markets abroad.
      KEY WORDS: alcoholic beverages market, market maturity, price, consumption, foreign trade


  • 12 Acetic Acid Bacteria – Important Risk in Food Industry – Hubert Antolak, Dorota Kręgiel
    • Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol- rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria is well known for its ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The metabolism of the oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well known. AAB, as firstly described by Pasteur in the 1850s, are difficult to be cultivated on artificial laboratory media and their taxonomy has not been well characterized. Wine and beer are at most risk of spoilage during production, however, the growth of AAB – strictly aerobic bacteria can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. This spoilage can be evident in beer or wine as a “flocks” or distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the drink and the headspace of air. This review focuses on the risk associated with the incidence of AAB species’ contamination in food industry, and the methods of AAB isolation and identification.
      KEY WORDS: acetic bacteria, fermentation industry, isolation, identification, contamination
  • 17 Production of Grape Wine in Cool Climate Countries. Application of Malolactic Fermentation – Małgorzata Lasik-Kurdyś
    • The malolactic fermentation is a secondary fermentation conduct mostly at the end of alcoholic fermentation in the process of grape wine production. It is a technique recommended specially for wine produced in cool climate countries like in Poland where the grapejuice (must), because of poor fruit insolation and low temperatures, is characterized by enhanced acidity and poor aroma. The aim of the malolactic fermentation is to reduce acidity reduction, modify aroma and enhance the microbial stabilization of the produced wine. The properly conducted process of the secondary fermentation is a difficult operation demanding precisely regimented conditions. The lack of its control is connected with a danger of undesirable metabolites’ accumulation, what may cause the disqualification of the produced wine.
      KEY WORDS: malolactic fermentation, grape wine, malolactic bacteria
  • 26 Craft Brewing – Strong, World Trend – Beata Marchand
  • 28 Microbiological Hazards in Fruit and Vegetable Products. Criteria for Safety and Hygiene of Production – Krystyna Kowal
    • In the article, the sources of fruit and vegetable products’ contamination and the factors affecting microbiological purity of these products have been discussed. The microbiological hazards in their production and the criteria for safety and hygiene of production have been described.
      KEY WORDS: fruit and vegetable products, microbiological hazards, safety and process hygiene criteria
  • 31 Bisphenol A in Food Contact Articles. Threat for Human Health, Legislation – Marzena Pawlicka, Andrzej Starski, Małgorzata Mazańska, Jacek Postupolski
    • The article discusses the application of bisphenol A in materials and articles intended for contact with food. It also presents the current legal status and the risks resulting from the use of this substance in the manufacture of articles intended for contact with food destined for infants and children.
      KEY WORDS: bisphenol A, migration, food contact materials, polycarbonates, epoxy resins


  • 34 Goji Berries – Superfruit in Dietetic Therapy. Health-promoting Diet – Anna Gramza-Michałowska, Bartosz Kulczyński
    • Goji berries (Lycium barbarum) are orange- red colored fruits with bitter-sweet taste, which become a part of European daily diet. Literature shows that Goji berries are included in a group of “super fruits”, characterized by a high content of nutritional components with high biological activity. Its health promoting values include hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and anticancer activity. Besides beneficial influence for human health Goji berries could cause an allergic reaction and interactions with consumed drugs.
      KEY WORDS: goji berries, Lycium barbarum, bioactive compounds, pro-health influence, antioxidant potential
  • 38 Domestic Market of Orange Juices – Evaluation of their Authenticity and Identity – Grzegorz Suwała
    • Orange juices are most commonly consumed beverages in respect of taste, both in Poland and throughout the European Union. The article compares the selected characteristics of the quality of orange juices available on the domestic market with the guidelines of the AIJN Code of Practice. The study involved eight different juices, coming both from the leading manufacturers, as well as being the private label retailers. Physico-chemical parameters, as constituting criteria for the assessment of the identity and authenticity of the juices, were determined. The results obtained are presented in a tabular form and compared with the guidelines of the AIJN Code of Practice. In addition, the determination of the presence of sulphur dioxide was performed, in order to verify the information about the way of preservation. The analysis showed a differentiated quality of juices, and discovered discrepancies in the majority of cases concerning individual characteristics, indicating the attempts to adulterate the juice (too low or too high content of carotenoids, indicating excessive dilution or probability of reaching an orange peel to juice, untypical total phosphorus content in ash, what indicates an excessive dilution).
      KEY WORDS: orange juices, authenticity of juices


  • 42 Business Information