Contents 6/2019; Tome 73


  • 2 Fruit and Vegetable Processing in Poland – Current State and Development Prospects – Bożena Nosecka, Iwona Szczepaniak (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.6.1)
    • The paper presents the level and changes in the volume and value of production as well as exports, imports and the balance of foreign trade in fruit and vegetable products and their groups in 2015-2018. The economic and financial situation of the fruit-vegetable industry enterprises was also characterized,, including the  traditional fruit and vegetable processing sector and the fruit and vegetable juices and drinks production sector. The subject of the assessment was also the position of the Polish fruit-vegetable industry compared to other European Union countries. The analysis shows that during this period, the upward trend in production, export and import of almost all processed products, observed since Poland’s accession to the EU, remained high. Similarly, the balance of fruit and vegetable products turnovers has remained highly positive. Financial results of enterprises were stable and ensured their operational safety. Poland in terms of the value of production of processed fruits and vegetables was in the fifth position in the European Union.
      KEY WORDS: fruit-vegetable industry, production, foreign trade, financial results, Poland, European Union


  • 11 Safety of Food Packaging – Legal Requirements – Marzena Pawlicka, Andrzej Starski, Małgorzata Mazańska, Jacek Postupolski (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.6.2)
    • The article discusses legal requirements for materials intended for contact with food, including food packaging. General provisions on the criteria for ensuring safety of material in contact with food and specific requirements were presented for groups of materials such as plastics, recycled plastics, active and intelligent materials, regenerated cellulose materials and ceramic products.
      KEY WORDS: materials and products for contact with food, food packaging, EU legislation, migration


  • 18 Tendencies and Trends on the Product Market with the Participation of Rare and Less Known Plants – Andrzej Cendrowski, Dorota Grzeszczak (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.6.3)
    • The article discusses the directions of development of the market of fruit and vegetable products with the participation of rare and little-known plants on the basis of the analysis of their availability in 8 stores in Warsaw. The study was based on the analysis of labels of all fruit and vegetable preserves, and those in which the producer declared the presence of rare and less known plants were specified, unfortunately.  The analysis includes the type of product, brand and composition. The widest range of products was offered by the largest stores. In addition to the leading brands, a lot of new ones have been found that offer only single products. The lack of literature from recent years regarding this topic may indicate that this particular market has not been thoroughly studied.
      KEY WORDS: market, preserves, wild plants, exotic plants, fruits, vegetables
  • 25 Lupine – Possibilities of Use – Aneta Tomczak, Magdalena Zielińska—Dawidziak (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.6.4)
    • In Poland, Lupinus L. is still treated as a fodder component or a catch crop. Even though it is a native plant and the products containing lupine can be easily found in stores, they are mostly imported. Seeds of sweet varieties of lupine are a source of valuable protein, and flour made from them, when added to wheat flour, improves its nutritional value. We often find the seeds in sports supplements, in the substitutes of dairy and meat products for vegetarians. Becouse they do not contain gluten proteins, they are used in the production of food for people suffering from celiac disease. Lupine seeds are the source of many health-promoting ingredients (prebiotic polysaccharides, antioxidants, vitamins, micro- and macroelements). New varieties have a reduced content of alkaloids, which results in their higher nutritional value and easier processing. This, in turn, should increase their use by Polish producers. They are mainly applied  in the production of such foods as: flour, yogurt, meatless chops, pates and even marinated seeds as an excellent snack. However, due to its homology with proteins of other legumes, lupine has been included in the list of allergens.
      KEY WORDS: legumes, narrow-leaved lupine, protein, nutrition


  • 29 A Study of Water State in Pumpkin and Sunflower Seeds Using the Method Based on Sorption Isotherms – Zbigniew Pałacha, Izabela Kęsik (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.6.5)
    • The aim of this study was to determine influence of temperature on the course of water sorption isotherms of pumpkin and sunflower seeds and determine the water state in the tested materials on the basis of the determined net isosteric heat of water sorption (qst,n). The water sorption isotherms determined by the static gravimetric method at 5, 25 and 40°C in the water activity range of 0,112-0,945. The GAB model was used to describe the water sorption isotherms. With the water sorption isotherms set in three temperature and using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the net isosteric heat of water sorption was calculated. The process temperature affected the course of sorption isotherms. Pumpkin seeds have reached higher values of net isosteric heat of water sorption than sunflower seeds. The calculated values of qst,n at the level of the monolayer for pumpkin and sunflower seeds were respectively: 8,047 and 5,509 kJ/mol.
      KEY WORDS: pumpkin and sun- flower seeds, sorption isotherms, net iso- steric heat of water sorption
  • 36 Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Cheese Sauces Obtained on the Basis of Acid Casein and Rapeseed Oil with Whey Protein Concentrate Addition – Jagoda O. Szafrańska, Siemowit Muszyński, Bartosz G. Sołowiej (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.6.6)
    • The purpose of this study  was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties cheese sauces obtained on basis of acid casein  and rapeseed oil with addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC80) in an amount between 2-8%.  The use of various concentrations of whey protein concentrate (WPC80) had an impact on the physicochemical properties of obtained cheese sauces. As the WPC80 whey protein content was increased, there was also observed an increase in hardness and adhesiveness of tested sauces.  The highest increase in cohesiveness was noticed in the sauce with the addition of 6% WPC80, and the springiness in sauce with the addition of 4% WPC80. With the increasing amount  of whey protein added to the  product, apparent viscosity  of cheese sauces  increased. In addition, all cheese  sauces were characterized by high springiness. The color intensity of the evaluated  sauces was significantly  different (p<0.05) and it  could be described as creamy. The density of the tested product was not characterized by even increase in the amount of added whey protein, while the water activity remained at a similar level.
      KEY WORDS: cheese sauce, whey protein concentrate (WPC80), rapeseed oil, texture, viscosity
  • 43 Characteristic and Methods of Wastewater Treatment in The Baking and Confectionery Industry – Agata Marzec, Hanna Kowalska (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.6.7)
    • The bakery and confectionery industry are one major of the main branches of food industry and varies widely in terms of production scale and process. Generally, bakery’s and confectionery’s industries wastewater are ontoxic. In the wastewater, there are high contents of organic pollutants including five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as the suspended solids (fats, oils, and greases). The amount of wastewater from these industries in the total balance of treated wastewater was small and did not significantly affect the biological processes in wastewater treatment. Currently, it is possible to encounter a situation in which sewage discharged from the factory producing  bakery and confectionery products constitutes the vast majority in relation to other types of sewage going to the sewage system. Therefore, the article characterizes the physicochemical properties of bakery and confectionery wastewater and the possibilities of their purification.
      KEY WORDS: wastewater, BOD5, COD, bakery,  confectionery


  • 48 Clean Label and Food Additives – Małgorzata Pasternak (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.6.8)
    • The label is an inseparable part of the product. More and more consumers want to know not only what the product is made of, but also want to know the origin of the product. However, they do not have specialist knowledge of ingredients and food additives in their composition. The purpose of this article is to present the source of information that can be used by both producers and food consumers. It describes what a correct label should look like, and on what the consumer should pay attention to when choosing food. The new trend of a clean label with a short and simple list of ingredients, its origin and impact on the final product was discussed. It was presented how the producers „clean” the labels by striving to produce a product that will not contain dyes, improvers, stabilizers, etc.
      KEY WORDS: cleaning labels, food additives, food quality


  • 24 New provisions on the labeling of spirit’s drinks
  • 28 Value of accreditation for enterprises from the food industry
  • 33 GM food labeling in Poland
  • 42 Wasting food – how to limit it?
  • 51 Chopin apples from SGGW