Contents 5/2018; tome 72


  • 2 Concentration Processes in the Polish Food Industry – Iwona Szczepaniak (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.5.1)
    • Progressing processes of regional integration and economic globalization have fundamentally changed the directions of the development of subjective structures of the Polish food industry. The processes of concentration of production, which returned to the sector, led to reduction in the number of active firms, mainly small ones and resulted in an increase in the number and share of production and employment of large companies. In the period of Polish membership in the European Union economic structure of the food industry has approached the structure in the EU Member States.
      Key words: food industry, subjective structure, concentration processes, Poland, European Union


  • 10 The Changes of the European Union Legislation on Food Additives and Flavourings – Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek, Jolanta Jarecka, Marta Dłużewska
    • The European Union legislation has been amended because of the re- evaluation of approved food additives by EFSA or as a result of food producer application on new uses of authorized food additives. The amendments of the EU legislation as regards preservative calcium sorbate, colour E 120 and the use of stabilizers – phosphate compounds in frozen vertical meat spits are presented in the article. The EU legislation on flavourings has been amended because of EFSA opinion on flavouring rum ether.
      KEY WORDS: food additives, flavourings, phosphates, cochineal, rum ether
  • 14 Health Claims Referring to Botanical Substances. Development of Work, Effects for Operators – Grażyna Osęka, Iwona Kowalczyk-Andrzejewska
    • From a legal point of view, both health claims that have not been assessed yet and some that previously received a negative opinion can still be used provided that certain requirements are met. It is possible to use 2078 health claims referring to the effect of botanicals – mainly herbal ingredients, but also lichens, algae and fungi, which are put on a provisional list, so-called “pending list”. While health claims for the majority of botanical ingredients are being re-evaluated, including some that were previously negatively assessed, operators are still allowed to use such claims provided that they have scientific data substantiating the described effect of a particular ingredient. There have been various attempts to prompt the European Commission and EFSA to accelerate their work on the pending list. They include actions brought by two companies to the Court of Justice of the European Union, which were to speed up the developments and be a starting point to break the deadlock in authorization of botanicals. At the end of last year, the European Commission won two important cases related to the provisional list of health claims referring to botanical substances. However, the Court underlined that the extended standstill period, resulting from a lacking concept for further assessment of ingredients from the pending list, was unacceptable. The opinion presented in these cases may have serious consequences for the future because the Court considered that health claims on hold must also meet, in each Member State, the requirements of its own national regime.
      KEY WORDS: botanicals, health claims, pending list, Court of Justice of the European Union, European Commission, EFSA, scientific assessment


  • 22 Yeast Extracts – New Reveal – Violetta Schube, Katarzyna Ratusz, Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.5.2)
    • Yeast extracts are natural products made from fresh baker’s, brewer’s or torula yeast by a controlled autolysis or hydrolysis process and extracting their cell contents. They are used as food ingredients or flavourings. Yeast extracts with natural nucleotides and free glutamic acid can be used in a wide range of food applications to create savoury flavours and umami taste sensations, in particular as savoury taste enhancers or MSG substitute in soups, sauces, snacks and ready-to-eat meals.  Because of the enhanced savoury taste, sodium chloride levels can be reduced which fits into the trend of reduced sodium and healthy food. Moreover, yeast extracts with a high content of 5’ nucleotides GMP and IMP can improve the taste and mouthfeel of low fat formulas, can modify the taste by reducing or masking the aftertaste such as steviol glycosides.
      KEY WORDS: yeast extracts, umami, substitutes for monosodium glutamate, salt reduction
  • 28 Extracts Rich in Polyphenols – Natural Preservatives of Meat Products – Magdalena Efenberger-Szmechtyk, Agnieszka Nowak (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.5.3)
    • Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with a very diverse structure. Due to the differences in structure, they are divided into 4 groups: phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. They are strong antioxidants and have many health benefits, such as anti-cancer, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. They also prevent osteoporosis and obesity. In addition, polyphenols reveal antimicrobial activity inhibiting the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, polyphenolic extracts can delay food spoilage processes and act as natural preservatives. The article discusses the antimicrobial properties of polyphenolic extracts obtained from various sources. Their effect on the shelf-life of meat and meat products during their storage has been also described.
      KEY WORDS: polyphenols, meat, antioxidants, health benefits
  • 34 Chitosan – a Natural Biopolymer Extending the Shelf Life of Foods – Aneta Cegiełka, Elżbieta Hać-Szymańczuk (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.5.4)
    • Chitosan is a natural biopolymer obtained in the process of deacetylation of chitin. There are many chitosan preparations available on the market, differing in the deacetylation degree and the average molecular weight, which determines the physico-chemical properties of this polymer. Due to non-toxicity, biocompatibility, biological activity and the ability to form polycations in the acidic environment, chitosan has found commercial application in many industries, including pharmacy, medicine and environmental protection. The article presents the selected application possibilities of chitosan with particular emphasis on agriculture and the food industry. The use of this polymer to extend the shelf-life and improve the quality of raw materials and food products results from its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and the ability to create coatings and films.
      KEY WORDS: chitosan, extend the shelf-life, improve the quality, food industry


  • 38 Consumers’ Knowledge of Aloe and Aloe Products – Anita Kukułowicz (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.5.5)
    • Aloe vera is the species with the highest biological activity. Pulp and the juice obtained from its leaves are processed on a large scale all over the world. The respondents, although they declared to use aloe products, appeared to have insufficient knowledge of biologically active components present in aloe. The highest knowledge about the acemannan and its ability to strengthen the immune system and to regenerate cells was possessed by the people who declared to have higher education and were above the age of 56.  Less than 12% of the respondents were aware of the irritating properties of anthraquinone, while over 30% of the polled knew that when applying Aloe Vera, allergic reactions may occur. The most discriminative variables were education and then, age.
      KEY WORDS: Aloe vera, aloe products, knowledge, nutritional behawior
  • 43 Public Procurement for the Supply of Groceries – Marek Borowski, Bartłomiej Kulisz