Contents 5/2017; tome 71

Przemysł Spożywczy 5/2017ECONOMY

  • 2 Polish Dairy Sector After the EU Accession – Piotr  Szajner (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.5.1)
    • After the accession to the EU, Polish dairy industry has successfully adjusted to market conditions. The conducted modernization processes allowed achieving the necessary veterinary standards and adaptation of production to the market requirements. Undergoing structural changes resulted in growing competition as regards both raw material basis and the dairy industry. Such changes triggered an improvement in efficiency of production and labour productivity. The dairy industry has been competitive on foreign markets what is confirmed by surplus in foreign trade. Financial standing of the industry is comfortable but highly reliable upon the situation on the world markets as exports account for a considerable share of output. Since the structure Polish dairy sector is still very fragmented as compared with the major competing EU countries, the process of structural changes cannot be considered as complete.
      KEY WORDS: market, prices, milk production, dairy sector, dairy products, demand, foreign trade, financial situation
  • 7 Bakery Industry – Production, New Technologies. Development Prospects – Jadwiga Drożdż (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.5.2)
    • The producers of fresh bread have operated, for several years, in the condition of declining domestic demand what is partially compensated by rapidly developing export. A high rate of sales development on foreign markets does not create the conditions for dynamic development of all industrial branches due to a small scale of the trade. The craftsmanship entities which produce for the local market are in extremely difficult situation. The industrial enterprises are in decisively better situation what is reflected in their economic-financial and production results. Progressing process of industrialization in the bakery industry is reflected by the relatively stable industrial production of fresh bread, with a decrease in its domestic consumption.
      KEY WORDS: bakery industry, industrial baker’s enterprises, fresh bread

LAW

  • 11 Natural Flavours in the Food Industry – Beata Zagroba
  • 12 Help the Interpretation of Food Additive Legislation. Commission Guidance Documents – Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek, Jolanta Jarecka, Marta Dłużewska
    • Legislation on food additives is complicated and the implementation of the rules is difficult either for producers or for official control authorities. In order to make the use of food additive legislation easier the European Commission has worked out the guidance document describing the food categories and guidance document on the classification of food extracts with colouring properties. The amendments introduced recently to these guideline documents and the changes of the documents planned in the near future are described in the article.
      KEY WORDS: food additives, guidance documents, European Commission, food categories, colouring food
  • 16 Contamination of Food with Mercury. Unexpected Changes Legislative Work – Monika Mania, Małgorzata Rebeniak, Tomasz Szynal

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 18 Flow of Food Liquids Through the Gear Pump – Agata Bieńczak (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.5.3)
    • The paper presents a visualization of the flow of food liquids through a gear pump. A test was carried out on the elaborated research bench for qualitative evaluation of the phenomena occurring during operation of a gear pump. The object of the research was an external gear pump of declared capacity of 2.5 m3·h-1. A glucose syrup of a viscosity of 15 Pa·s was used for the tests which were carried out at the temperature of 22°C with the addition of hexagonal polyester film particles. At the time of the flow, phenomena of whirlpool formation in the intercog spaces as well as at the point of gear meshing were observed. Moreover, it was observed that the fact of not filling the intercog spaces results in decreasing the volumetric efficiency of the gear pump.
      KEY WORDS: gear pump, glucose syrup, flow in the pump, volumetric efficiency of the gear pumps
  • 21 Volatile Flavour Compounds in Polish Butter – Maria Baranowska, Marika Bielecka, Bogusław Staniewski, Hanna Nowak (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.5.4)
    • In the article, the types of volatile aroma and flavour compounds found in butter were described. Their sources and determinants of their occurrence were presented. There was also discussed the profile of volatile aroma and flavour compounds, which were identified with HS-SPME-GC-MS method in nine samples of commercial butter, one sample of butter produced from cream and one sample of butter assessed after its expiry date. It was indicated that the largest group of volatile compounds identified in the samples was constituted by volatile free fatty acids and ketones which, in turn, points to hydrolytic degradation and further changes in milk fat.
      KEYWORDS: butter, volatile aroma and flavour compounds
  • 30 Food Safety in Catering Establishments in Poland and in the EU. Quality Systems – Dorota Miarka, Monika Stanisławek, JolantaKowalska (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.5.5)
    • The tools supporting food safety are both obligatory and voluntary quality systems. They are applied in order to systematize and unify the procedures in every unit of the food industry and to ensure the safety of meals. The requirement to implement systems of GMP, GHP and HACCP stems from the provisions of the EU and national legal acts. There is also the GCP (Good Catering Practice) system, which is non-obligatory but excellently complementing the requirements and ensuring both food safety and quality of foods produced in catering establishments. Alternative systems of food safety to the HACCP system functioning in the European Union are the Safe Food and Better Business (SFBB) systems used in catering establishments in Great Britain. Implementing each of them supports the ensuring of the health safety of foods, served in gastronomic establishments.
      KEY WORDS: safety, gastronomic, establishments, quality systems
  • 34 Application of High Pressure for Apple and Beetroot Juices’ Preservation – Agnieszka Jankowska, Karolina Bałdyga (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.5.6)
    • In the following paper, the possibilities of using High Pressure Processing (HPP) for the purpose of apple and beetroot juices preservation were discussed. Juice samples were pressurized under 200, 300, 400 MPa for 10 minutes at room temperature and other samples were pasteurized at 85°C for 15 minutes. The juices were stored for 14 days at 4°C. The content of polyphenols in apple juice and beetroot juice, of ascorbic acid in apple juice, the content of betanin in beetroot juice and the total bacterial count and the number of yeasts and molds were determined. The juices exposed to high pressure, showed higher concentration of polyphenols and vitamin C in comparison with the pasteurized and control juices. The application of pressure reduced the loss of betanin content during storage time by 52% compared to the raw juice. Application of the pressure of 300 and 400 MPa effectively reduced the number of bacteria, yeasts and molds in the tested juices. The highest inactivation of microorganisms was observed at 400 MPa.
      KEY WORDS: fruit juices, betanin, preservation, polyphenols, high pressure technology
  • 40 Red Beet Chips as Health-Promoting Food – Katarzyna Mikołajczyk-Bator, Janusz Czapski (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.5.7)
    • In this study, we present the stages of production of beet chips and, also, the impact of various technological processes on the changes in antioxidant activity of beet and the content of betalain pigments. We also compared the antioxidant capacity of juice and beet chips, coming from three varieties of red beet. In the technological process for production of beet chips, a large loss of violet pigments occurred during blanching and dehydration. The antioxidant capacity of chips was very high and was found to be equal to 100 μM Trolox/g of the product. Technological procedures associated with a heat treatment, in particular with drying, increase the antioxidant capacity of chips as calculated into the dry matter content in the finished product. Both the juice and beet chips are an excellent source of products with health-promoting activity.
      KEY WORDS: red beet juice, beet chips, antioxidant activity

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 44 Nutritional Value of Fats in Long Shelf-Life Confectionery Products. Polish Market – Sylwia Onacik-Gür, Anna Żbikowska, György Karlovits, Milena Kupiec (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.5.8)
    • Short crust cakes are a source of fat with a high content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and sometimes trans isomers (TFA). SFA and TFA have an adverse effect on the human cardiovascular system. That is why there is a need of replacing popular shortenings by vegetable oils with the composition of fatty acids (FA), beneficial for human health. In 20% of the products there were used the additives, improving their nutritional value. The average fat content of the discussed products ranged from 29.07 to 19.65%. The highest declared content of SFA was found in wafers: it was 53.77% of the total fat content. Most manufacturers declared the use of ‘vegetable fat’ without giving specific name of a plant. On 15.5% of the analyzed labels there was information about the use of hardened fat and on 15% of them – about the use of palm fat. In Poland, long shelf-life bakery products are a source of SFA and still, in many products, the hardened fats, which may contain industrial TFA, are used.
      KEY WORDS: nutritional value, saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, market research, palm oil