Contents 5/2016

Przemysł Spożywczy 5/2016


  • 2 Polish Agri-Food Sector Opens up to Non-EU Markets – Małgorzata Bułkowska
    • The aim of the article is to analyze the current trends and prospects of development of Polish agri-food trade with non-EU countries. Special attention was paid to changes in the geographical and commodity structures of Polish agri-food trade as a result of the embargo imposed by Russia, in 2013-2015. There was also stressed the role of bilateral trade agreements as well as the need for coordinated action to promote Polish food abroad. In the recent years, the role of third countries in Polish exports of agri-food products has steadily increased, however they still have relatively little significance, and the trade with these countries is not very diversified. The most perspective markets for the development of Polish exports of food products can be considered: China, India, as well as ASEAN, the Mediterranean and African countries, which are characterized by rapid growth in import demand for food. Important partners may also be the countries of Central and North America.
      KEY WORDS: foreign trade, export, import, agri-food products
  • 10 Social Responsibility of a Producer – Witold Płocharski, Jarosław Markowski, Barbara Groele
    • The paper raised a number of issues relating to corporate social responsibility (CSR), referring to a few documents having an international dimension. Particular attention was paid to the ISO 26000 standard taking into account the issue of fair operating practices, including progress in fighting corruption. Since joining the European Union, Poland has made great progress in the fight against corruption, as evidenced by statistics of Transparency International. Taking an example of the juice industry progress in adapting the business to the requirements of CSR was shown, especially when it concerns fair competition. Consistent actions (including e.g. withdrawal of the product from the market) enabled the almost complete elimination of adulteration in the market of juices and nectars.
      KEY WORDS: CSR standards, definitions, corruption perception index, products adulteration


  • 16 Carry-Over Principle on Food Additives. Legislative Requirements and the Draft of the European Commission Guidance Document – Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek, Jolanta Jarecka
    • The carry-over principle described in the regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EC) No 1333/2008 on food additives concerns the case when the food additive is incorporated into food product by one of the ingredients. The evaluation whether the carry-over principle has been applied properly is difficult either for food producers or for official control authorities. In order to assure that the interpretation of the legislation on food additives is the same in all Member States of the EU, the European Commission has prepared the guidance document on carry-over principle.
      KEY WORDS: food additives, carry-over principle, guidance document of the European Commission
  • 20 The Microbiological Threats in Food – Małgorzata Stachowiak
    • Microbes are all around us – in the air, the soil, water and our bodies. This means they can soon get into food and, if the conditions are right, multiply rapidly. Bacteria will grow anywhere they have access to nutrients and water .Some are beneficial, such as those used to make fermented dairy and meat products. Others cause spoilage of food. And, a small number are pathogenic and so can cause disease, such as foodborne illness. Some, such as Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, are familiar, whereas others are much less well understood. Pathogen evolution is continuous and is driven by a variety of forces, only some of which relate to human activities. The continual evolution of foodborne pathogens forces us to change food production processes and products to maintain and improve microbiological food safety. A marked increase in the incidence of microbial food poisoning increased scientific and public concern about microbiological hazards. The article presents the important pathogens involved in food poisoning and issues salient to developing effective risk analysis.Modern food production is so complex that a systematic approach is needed to identify the hazards at each point in the food chain.
      KEY WORDS: threats, food poisoning, pathogens
  • 26 The Chemometrics as a Tool for Quality Control of Food. Part II. Beverages and Food of Plant Origin – Magdalena Efenberger-Szmechtyk, Agnieszka Nowak, Dorota Kręgiel
    • Quality control of food products is extremely important, both for producers and consumers of food. In that case, new methods are sought that can provide fast and easy evaluation of food products quality. Chemometrics enable differentiation of food products according to chemical composition and microbiological quality. Part I of this paper presented most frequently applied chemometric methods and their use in quality control of food of animal origin: meat and meat products as well as fish and sea-food products. In part II of the article, the use of chemometrics in quality control of beverages and food of plant origin, such as: tea, coffee, honey, rice and alcoholic beverages will be described. Due to implementation of chemometric methods, it is possible to identify different varieties of tea, coffee and honey, separation of wines of different quality and their differentiation according to geographical origin.
      KEY WORDS: chemometrics, tea, coffee, honey, rice, wine
  • 30 Galactomyces geotrichum – Little-known Mould Occurring in Foods – Anna Grygier, Kamila Myszka, Magdalena Rudzińska
    • Galactomyces geotrichum mould is the component of the microbiomes of dairy products. There is in the following cheese types: raclette, limburger, cotija, bryndza cheese, fried cottage cheese and in some of the dairy drinks (kumys, shubat and nunu). G. geotrichum is non-pathogenic mould. It is able to expansive growth in wide range of pH (3-11) and temperature (25-40°C). In the dairy products, generates flavouring and aroma properties. Due to proteolysis of bitter peptides, it decreases bitterness of cheese and fermented milk drinks. Some strains of G. geotrichum are also able to biosynthesize bioactive compounds, preventing diseases of civilization associated with diet. Among them polyunsaturated fatty acids and peptides inhibiting the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme were observed. The review reported the physiological and biochemical features of the G. geotrichum mould and its use in the dairy industry.
      KEY WORDS: Galactomyces geotrichum, dairy products, polyunsaturated fatty acids, angiotensin converting enzyme


  • 33 White Mulberry – Valuable Source of Health – Monika Przeor, Ewa Flaczyk
    • White mulberry (Morus alba L.) belongs to the family Moraceae as well as Ficus. Its name comes from the color of buds. Color of the fruits is white, pink or even dark purple, depending on the anthocyanins content. White mulberry is a medium-sized tree or big bush with milk ducts. Mulberry cultivation is cheap and the tree is quite undermanding. Far Eastern Medicine has used many medicinal plants, including mulberry, in particular its leaves, bark, roots, fruits, for centuries. Studies indicate that polyphenol-, alkaloid-, triterpen- and steroid-rich mulberry leaves, are a valuable plant material that can be used to treat many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, urinary system or nervous system, eg. Alzheimer’s disease, as well as in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Therefore, mulberry extracts, teas, jams, are used more often by Polish people as pharmaceuticals in everyday life.
      KEY WORDS: white mulberry, therapeutic properties, Chinese Medicine, biological compounds
  • 36 Natural Sources of Flavonoids and their Influence on Human Health – Anna Mikołajczuk-Szczyrba, Izabella Młynarczyk, Anna Misiewicz
    • Flavonoids are natural compounds of plant origin. They are present in fruits, vegetables, vine, tea, herbs and spices. They exhibit wide range of biological activities including most of all antioxidant properties but also anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-microbial properties. Beneficial influence to human body of flavonoids rich diets has contributed to elaboration.
      KEY WORDS: flavonoids, foods, antioxidants, health
  • 39 Functional Foods Important in the Nutrition of Elderly People – Anna Jędrusek-Golińska, Danuta Górecka, Krystyna Szymandera-Buszka
    • The aging of the world population is one of the problem of the developed countries and challenges for food producers in the twenty-first century. Physiological changes associated with aging make it necessary to match the kind of nutrition to the new body needs. For this reason, the food industry should adapt their production to the needs and requirements of the elderly. There is a wide range of functional products on the market, including those being favourable for lowering the blood cholesterol level and decreasing the risk of osteoporosis. It should encourage the elderly population to include them into their diet.
      KEY WORDS: elderly people, nutrition, functional foods