Contents 5/2014

Przemysł Spożywczy 5/2014ECONOMY

  • 2 Globalization of Agri-Food Sector – Tomasz Wierzejski, Mirosław Gornowicz
    • The article presents the analysis of globalization of Polish agri-food sector. The conditions of internationalization were strongly influenced by Poland’s accession to the EU structures in the 2004, especially in the agri-food sector. The global financial crisis was an important factor, as well. During global economic recession, the analyzed sector, as compared to other economy sections, consolidated its international position. In Poland, during the years 2001-2011, agri-food export increased from 3 009 to 21 170 million USD and the participation of Poland in global export changed from 0.55 to 1.28%. At present, the agri-food sector accounts for about 11% of Polish total foreign sales.
      KEY WORDS: globalization, mesoeconomics, agri-food sector, international trade
  • 7 Ever Closer Cooperation of Science with Industry – Beata Marchand


  • 8 Food Additives – their Application In Poland. Historical Outline – Regina Wierzejska
    • The use of food additives is one of the important factors of food safety. The development of food technology is connected with applying a lot of additives for various technological purposes. This article presents the change of law concerning food additives, starting from the first regulation in this area in Poland.
      KEY WORDS: food additives, regulations, food, labels
  • 12 Coloured Food – with or without Food Colours? – Joanna Olszak
    • The application of substances which add or restore colour in food significantly affects the proper appearance of foods and their acceptance by consumers. In connection with the development of the trend of „clean label”, food business operators seek to replace colours – food additives with food ingredients (i.e. preparations) that cause secondary colouring effect. This avoids declaring E-numbers on the label, achieving at the same time the desired technological effect. However, the distinction between colour – food additives, and the colouring food component may be difficult and it is affected by a number of aspects. Similar difficulties are often caused when preparing effective and safe marketing communications for foodstuffs produced using the so-called “colouring food”.
      KEY WORDS: colours, colouring food, extract, food additives
  • 15 Smoke Flavourings – Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek, Jolanta Jarecka, Agnieszka Świtka, Katarzyna Kuźma
    • Smoked foods in general give a rise to health concerns, especially in relation to the possible presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. As smoke flavourings are produced from smoke which is subjected to fractionation and purification processes, the use of smoke flavourings is generally considered to be of less health concern than the traditional smoking process. The EU legislation on smoke flavourings consists of some regulations. Recently, the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1321/2013  of 10 December 2013 establishing the Union list of authorised smoke flavouring primary products for use as such in or on foods and/or for the production of derived smoke flavourings, has been published. The list of authorised smoke flavouring primary products as well as the conditions of usage thereof is included in the regulation. The new regulation and the labelling rules for the products, containing smoke flavourings, are described in the article.
      KEY WORDS: smoke flavourings, food, smoking


  • 20 Gluten-free Products in the Light of the Development of Research on Celiac Disease – Anna Wojtasik, Hanna Kunachowicz
    • In the recent years a growing interest in celiac disease and other diseases associated with sensitivity to gluten has been observed. The article discusses some results of experimental and epidemiological studies, current view at gluten-free products, their definition, as well as the attention paid to plant materials, the application of which may be helpful in adding diversity to the gluten-free diet. Also guidelines of the Codex Alimentarius and the EU Regulation concerning the permissible content of gluten in the products intended for individuals susceptible to gluten were presented.
      KEY WORDS: gluten, coeliac disease, gluten sensitivity, gluten- -free products, limits for gluten content
  • 26 Umami – the Fifth Taste. Why the Glutamic Acid Makes Taste Stronger and More Flavour – Beata Marchand
    • The fifth taste – umami, although not previously named, has been known from ancient times, both in eastern and western cultures. Umami receptors, present on the human tongue and in the stomach, recognize the presence of protein in food. Adding glutamic acid and monosodium glutamate to our diet can help in consumption of low sodium meals and improve taste of less attractive, but healthier food ingredients.
      KEY WORDS: umami, glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate, inosinate, guanyl, garum


  • 34 Trademark and Industrial Design for Food Product – Iwona Wrześniewska-Wal
    • The article presents the issues relating to trademarks and industrial designs of foods as a part of competitive advantage in the market. Apart from the definition of the concepts, the protection afforded by registration both at the national, EU and international level, has been discussed.
      KEY WORDS: grocery products, trademark, industrial design
  • 37 Standards for the Composition and Labelling of Fruit Jams, Jellies and Marmalades. Trends of the Changes in the Law – Wioletta Bogusz-Kaliś
    • Fruit preparations, in respect of which the requirements concerning the marketable quality have been specified, must be produced in accordance with the established requirements. In the article, for example, the requirements for the commercial quality jams, preserves, marmalades have been described. The attention was paid to the proposed changes regarding the marketable quality, including changes of the names of the products processed with reduced sugar content. It also discusses the rules of labelling the products processed from fruit – both the general requirements for foodstuffs, and the specific requirements which relate to only these groups of products which are processed from fruit. There are also described the changes of the rules for labelling of foodstuffs in accordance with the requirements of the Regulation 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers. The new rules for labelling must be applied by the manufacturers already since 13, December 2014.
      KEY WORDS: jams, marmalades, merchantable quality, composition, labelling, changes in law


  • 41 10 Years of Poland in the EU – the Balance of Membership
  • 42 Successful – VI International Fair of Packaging – Packaging Innovations
  • 42 SIAL 2014
  • 43 Business Information