Contents 5/2019; Tome 73


  • 2 Catering Still in the Lead – Krystyna Świetlik (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.5.1)
    • The increase in affluence and changes in the lifestyle of the population cause that Poles are more and more willing to eat meals outside the home. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the scale of this phenomenon in 2015-2017. Changes in the numbers of catering establishments, and sales and income of catering businesses are discussed. Analysis has been conducted on the level and structure of household expenditure on eating out. Research studies have shown that eating out is competing more and more with food purchased in the retail sector. In the years  2015-2017 the rate of growth of real household expenditure on eating out was  three times higher than of food consumed at home. There has been a significant increase in spend on eating out in less affluent and middle-income groups.  Restaurants and fast food outlets have proved to be particularly popular. The share of household income spent on food and  non-alcoholic drinks has increased on eating out. Research suggests that the popularity of eating out among Polish consumers will continue to increase under the influence of growth  of level of affluence and changes in the patterns of consumption.
      KEY WORDS: catering, eating out, consumer, household, catering establishments, demand for catering services


  • 7 Flavourings in Food – Legal Requirements, Changes in Legislation – Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek, Jolanta Jarecka, Marta Dmitruk (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.5.2)
    • One of the general conditions for use of flavourings in food is not to pose a safety risk to the health of the consumer. The specific requirements for flavourings intended to be used in food are set up in the annexes to the regulation no 1334/2008. In annex I there is the union list of flavourings and source materials approved for use in food. The process of the flavouring substances evaluation by EFSA is still ongoing in the EU and therefore the union list is being changed all the time. For some kinds of flavourings, the EFSA evaluation is necessary only when flavouring is obtained from source material other than food.
      KEY WORDS: food flavourings, EFSA, legislation
  • 12 Provision of Information on the Possible Presence of Allergens in the Product – Legal Requirements and Interpretations – Dominika Jeżewska (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.5.3)
    • The occurrence of food allergies and food intolerances is becoming increasingly common. People suffering from allergy, intolerance or predisposed to this type of health disorders should avoid allergens to the largest extent possible. The article presents Community UE provisions on the labelling of food allergens, in particular the ones set out in Regulation (EU) no 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the provision of food information to consumers (hereinafter referred to as Regulation 1169/2011). It is mentioned what allergens must be labelled and how they should be presented on the label. In the article  also the conditions and rules for the use of such statements as  “May contain…”  in the labelling of food products were discusses. This issue has not been expressly regulated by law and thus raises various doubts among both producers and control authorities.
      KEY WORDS: allergens, unintentional introduction of allergens, Regulation EU 1169/2011


  • 17 Food Additives in Food Concentrates – Elżbieta Dłużewska, Marta Dmitruk (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.5.4)
    • The article presents the definition of food additives and legal provisions for their use. The description of food concentrates is also mentioned. Then, the types of food additives that are used in the production of dinner concentrates, dessert concentrates, beverage concentrates and mayonnaise sauces are given. The article includes characteristics of food additives, flavour enhancers, yeast extracts, flavourings, food colours and modified starches which are added to these products. Their functional properties and the issue of their safety for the health of consumers were presented.
      KEY WORDS: food additives, food concentrates
  • 21 Analysis of the Flavors Used in Food Products – Emilia Janiszewska-Turak, Natalia Roman (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.5.5)
    • Aromas are a diverse group of food additives. They are made and added to foods to meet consumer requirements for the taste and aroma of consumed food. Their use is regulated, however, by the legal acts to which producers must apply. The aim of the work was to analyze the market of food products with the aromas declared in the composition and to analyze consumer awareness of flavorings used in food products. Consumer research has proven that food flavors are used by a large number of consumers, and the knowledge of those surveyed  about them is classified at a moderate level.
      KEY WORDS: food flavors, food products, market analysis, consumer research


  • 28 Application of Sugar Polyalcohols in the Osmotic Treatment of Quince Fruit in Technology of Chips Processing – Natalia Kita, Hanna Kowalska (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.5.6)
    • The use of polyols for the osmotic dehydration of fruit at the pre-treatment stage and the appropriate drying method can be used to create products with high nutritional, sensory and functional qualities. Hybrid drying, being a combination of several treatments, is getting more popular. It is a combination of several treatments. This article presents this technique by combining convection drying with microwave-vacuum drying. The use of hybrid drying after the osmotic treatment al lows to shape high quality dried fruit in terms of colour, taste and structure. This solution is an alternative to the expensive freeze-drying process. It was also found that polyols, xylitol and erythritol, may be used as alternatives to the dehydration of osmotic plant tissue.
      KEY WORDS: dried fruit, freeze-drying, convective-microwave-vacuum drying
  • 35 Cheeses from The Milk of Cows of Local Breeds as a Valuable Source of Nutrients – Aneta Brodziak, Jolanta Król, Anna Teter, Joanna Barłowska, Monika Kędzierska-Matysek (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.5.7)
    • Local breeds are a source of valuable raw material in terms of nutritional and health-promoting values as well as technological suitability – especially for cheese production. The aim of the study was to discuss the use of native cattle breeds to produce local dairy products – cheeses with high nutritional values. The research was carried out within the Biostrateg II project. Cheeses manufactured in the conditions of a small processing plant from the milk of local (Polish Red, White-Backed and Simmental) cows maintained on traditional farms, i.e. using the pasture, were reported. Such products fully meet the current needs of modern consumers who are looking for foods with a higher nutritional value and containing many health-promoting ingredients. Increasing interest in these products creates an opportunity for the development of the market of products obtained from milk of native animal breeds.
      KEY WORDS: milk, local breeds, nutritional value, technological suitability
  • 40 The Effect of Fiber Micronization on its Physicochemical Properties – Anioła Jacek (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.5.8)
    • Due to the increasing availability of fine ground high-fiber preparations and the use of such preparations as additives in food production, a need arose to determine the effect of fiber micronization on its physicochemical and functional properties. The micronized preparations were those ground below  50 μm, when the cellulose turns into microcrystalline form and radically changes its properties. Such preparations are undetectable in terms of structure, which allows increasing their concentration in products.  Fine grinding of fibre has  a positive effect on a number of parameters: sensory properties of products, viscosity, hydration capacity and binding of metal ions, product structure, fragility of ready cakes etc. The review of literature reports suggests the possibility of wide application of micronized high-fiber preparations as food additives.
      KEY WORDS: dietary fiber, high-fiber preparations, micronization, functional properties


  • 10 Maritime fisheries in the context of the European Maritime Day
  • 16 POLAGRA – more than fair
  • 20 Plastic microfine: sources of origin, effects, solutions
  • 27 The strength of meetings at Packaging Innovations
  • 34 Our bread, Easter pastries
  • 43 IFFA – summary