Contents 4/2018

ECONOMY

  • 2 Foreign Direct Investment in Poland and Investment of Polish Firms Abroad – Łukasz Ambroziak (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.4.1)
    • The purpose of the article is to assess an activity of foreign direct investors in the food industry in Poland and an activity of Polish food enterprises abroad in the period of 2004-2016. The food industry, defined as a manufacture of food products, beverages and tobacco products, is one of the largest recipients of the foreign direct investments among manufacturing divisions. The most internationalized were tobacco, brewing, spirit, confectionery, fats and sugar industries. Since the accession to the EU also Polish enterprises from the food industry have begun to invest abroad. They set up distribution and logistics companies as well as acquired processing plants. The investment expansion was mainly concentrated on the markets of the Central and Eastern Europe countries.
      KEY WORDS: Foreign direct investment in Poland, Polish direct investment abroad, food industry, transnational corporations
  • 8 Food Product Innovations. International Trends – Szczepan Figiel (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.4.2)
    • Searching for innovative solutions meeting changing expectations of food consumers is an indispensable condition of food companies’ market success. Knowledge of the food product innovation trends occurring in various world regions and countries, which are characterized in this article in a comparative manner, can be useful in this regard. The main goal of the article is examine to what extent intensity of occurrence of such trends in different world regions is universal, and to what extent specific, at least because of economic and cultural determinants. The analysis was based on data provided by the XTC World Innovation Panorama [12]. It was found that intensity of occurrence of the analyzed trends is quite similar; however, certain differences can be noticed regarding their relative importance depending on the region. It was also pointed out which of those trends may gain importance due to an evolution of consumer preferences.
      KEY WORDS: trends, product innovations, food markets

LAW

  • 12 GMO in Crops and Food. The New Law on GMOs – Iwona Wrześniewska-Wal
    • Different standards of food safety and protection of European consumers constitute a significant obstacle in the negotiations of the TTIP agreement. The reason is the discrepancy between the EU and the US on issues as fundamental as the concept of risk management and the level of protection required in the marketing of GMO food. In this respect, EU law based on the precautionary principle is restrictive and the United States recognizes the concept of substantial equivalence and does not have uniform regulation. Meanwhile, in Poland, the parliament, has adopted an amendment to the act on microorganisms and genetically modified organisms, which adapts our legislation to strict EU rules. The new act is to enable the creation of a GMO crop register in Poland and thus the execution of the judgment of the EU Court of Justice in Case C-478/13. However, currently in Poland it is forbidden to cultivate GMO crops, which means that even after the introduction of the abovementioned products on the market due to relevant EU regulations, they will not be able to be introduced into the territory of Poland. Even if Poland introduces a GMO crop register, it will now be an empty register.
      KEY WORDS: GM food, new law, globalization

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 16 The Use of Ozone in the Production of Safe Food – Monika Trząskowska, Bogusław J. Cieślicki
    • Ozone (O3) is a gas naturally occurring in nature, which is formed in the stratosphere at a height of about 30 km as a result of the action of ultraviolet rays on oxygen. A large energy is needed to produce ozone, which breaks down molecular oxygen (O2) into two free oxygen radicals (O-), quickly reacting with available oxygen to form O3. For industrial production of ozone, corona and dielectric discharges are used. In the food industry, ozone is used for production lines and containers before filling disinfection, food preservation, water treatment for bottling and drinking, and wastewater treatment. The resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics should encourage manufacturers to be interested in this disinfectant. Another possible application of ozone is neutralization of pesticide residues and mycotoxins in food. Ozone, like all chemical substances, has advantages and disadvantages, and its use requires proper selection of process parameters and examination of their impact on the quality of individual food products. Ozonation is an ecological technique for preserving food, and it is also an economic process.
      KEY WORDS: ozone, food preservation, disinfection
  • 24 Microencapsulation Technologies – New Trends – Damian Kawka, Elżbieta Dłużewska,Magdalena Maszewska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.4.3)
    • The article presents trends in technologies of microencapsulation of food ingredients and additives. The results of research on the choice of the proper carrier, the improvement of the stability of active substances and the efficiency of processes as well as on the modification of the method of release of active substances from microcapsules are shown. Also novelties concerning, among others, spray drying, spray freeze drying, cyclodextrins, liposomes are presented. New technologies of microencapsulation are described, with particular emphasis on those methods in which supercritical fluids are used. These technologies allow not only obtaining microcapsules with a better quality compared to microcapsules obtained by conventional methods, but also belonging to the so-called green technologies that allow for greater environmental protection.
      KEY WORDS: microencapsulation methods, spray drying, cyclodextrins, supercritical gas
  • 28 High Pressure Homogenization in the Food Industry – Justyna Szczepańska, Krystian Marszałek, Sylwia Skąpska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.4.4)
    • High pressure homogenization (HPH) used at appropriate process parameters can be a non-thermal method of preservation. The primary aim of this technique is stabilization of non-homogeneous liquid systems (emulsions), but it can be also used for inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes. Unlike the traditional pasteurization, the HPH method does not significantly affect the content of bioactive compounds and does not change most of the sensory features of the product. However the consistency is modified, because product becomes more smooth and homogenous, and possible sedimentation is limited. High pressure homogenization technique could be potentially used for preservation of dairy products, in fruit and vegetable sector in the production of juices, smoothies and also in brewing industry.
      KEY WORDS: high pressure homogenization, physical changes, quality, microorganisms, enzymes, bioactive compounds
  • 32 Gluten-Free Bread – Technological Challenges – Maria Różańska, Sylwia Mildner-Szkudlarz (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.4.5)
    • Developing recipes for gluten-free bread dough causes many problems due to inadequate baking properties of the gluten-free raw materials. The resulting bread is characterized by an inferior crumb structure and insufficient aeration. In the paper, the methods for the modification of physicochemical properties of gluten-free raw materials have been described. The benefits, resulting from the application of the HMT hydrothermal treatment and the extrusion process have been presented. The influence of high pressure technologies and physical methods for dough aeration on the structural properties of gluten-free bread was also described. The results of the newest researches on the possibility of increasing the sensory quality of gluten-free products using sourdough fermentation have been presented.
      KEY WORDS: gluten-free bread, HHP technology, extrusion, ultrasound mixing

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 36 Consumer Acceptance of Products Preserved by Innovative Methods – Bartosz Kruszewski, Stanisław Kalisz, Anna Grobelna
    • The international market of products preserved by innovative methods is small but still growing. The most promising technologies are high pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric field (PEF). One of the barriers to product development is insufficient consumer acceptance resulting from lack of knowledge about the operation principle and negative associations of some technologies names. Evaluation of consumer acceptance of an innovative product should be carried out from the product design stage. The evaluation should comprise various criteria that are mix of cultural, social and cognitive attitudinal variables of consumers. Continuous communication and rising consumer awareness about the benefits confirmed by many studies, such as high nutritional value and extended shelf life, are needed.
      KEY WORDS: innovative technics of preservation, consumer acceptance, consumer education
  • 39 Minikiwi – a New, Valuable Raw Material for the Food Industry – Michał Bialik, Ewa Gondek, Artur Wiktor,  Piotr Latocha, Dorota Witrowa-Rajchert (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.4.1)
    • Kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta) is a domestic perennial climbing plant that originates from Asia but can be cultivated under Polish climatic conditions. The fruit commonly known as mini-kiwi is a grapes-size gelatinous berry with sweet-sour, green or red flesh containing plenty of fine seeds. Mini-kiwi, unlike kiwifruit, can be eaten whole, without peeling. Kiwiberry has a positive health effect on human body, thanks to bacteriostatic, antioxidant properties and high enzyme activity. It is a good source of vitamins C, B, folic acid, polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and minerals. The delicate skin makes the ripe fruits to retain their usefulness for consumption at room temperature for a week and stored in industrial refrigerators for up to six weeks. Fruits can be eaten fresh, and they can be used to make confectionery (chocolate, jelly, candy), to produce jams, juices, teas, as a supplement to fruit yoghurt, muesli mixes and distilleries.
      KEY WORDS: Kiwiberry, Actinidia arguta, health-promoting properties, industrial applications