Contents 4/2016

Przemysł Spożywczy 4/2016


  • 2 Trade balance after one and a half years of the Russian Embargo – Łukasz Ambroziak
    • The purpose of the article is to assess the impact of the Russian ban on Polish agri-food exports over one and a half year of its duration. The special attention was paid to products of three sectors, that is, meat, fruit and vegetable as well as dairy branch. Russia was an important market for the products of these sectors. Although the imposed embargo has not influenced in fact the Polish agri-food exports, some producers have been hit hardly by the ban. The producers of pork meat, fresh fruits (e.g. apples and pears), fresh vegetables (e.g. cabbage, peppers and cucumbers), frozen vegetables and ripened cheese were affected by the largest income losses.
      KEY WORDS: exports, agri-food products, Poland, Russia, embargo
  • 8 Business Gazelles 2015. Small and Medium-Sized Food Enterprises – Jadwiga Drożdż
    • In the XVI edition of the Business Gazelles ranking there were found 185 food companies, of which 72 companies are the newcomers. As compared to its previous edition, 39 manufacturers moved up to higher positions in the ranking. Listed companies accounted for 4.3% of the entities in the ranking, i.e. by 1.9 percentage points less than in the last year. The most dynamic small and medium-sized food companies represented almost all branches of the food industry, with the exception for sugar, spirits, and wine and tobacco sectors. Traditionally, the meat industry was most numerously represented, followed subsequently by the production of food concentrates, as well as fruit and vegetables’ sector. The largest share in the turnover of individual sectors belonged to the most dynamic small and medium-sized companies producing pasta, soft drinks and vegetable fats, that is, those ones, the representation of which was not large.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, small and medium-sized food enterprises, ranking of the most dynamic companies


  • 12 The Importance of Food Shelf Life Study for Producers and Consumers. Present and Future – Anna Bugajewska
    • Studies evaluating the durability of food, being often called a shelf-life of the product are currently underused by manufacturers who have entered into an era of new challenges related to consumer expectations on low-processed food, as most natural (clean label) with high nutritional value. Knowledge of all available types of shelf life studies (standard, accelerated, PAO, NHDD, challenge tests) and the ability to select them correctly for purpose which must be obtained in collaboration with professional expert laboratory – in this field is the key to success to build a strong market position and optimize cost of this project. Owing to the proper shelf life study, the manufacturer gains a broad and accurate knowledge about his product that can be successfully used in a number of areas related to the design of new products, modification of already produced while ensuring their safety and quality expected by the consumer.
      KEY WORDS: durability study, PAO, NHDD, challenge study, consumer expectations, business opportunity for food producers
  • 16 The Proteins in Ice-cream – Elżbieta Polak, Jadwiga Markowska
    • The traditional sources of proteins used in ice cream and their functional, nutritional and technological values are discussed. Some trends in the application of protein substitutes extracted from mammalian and plant tissues are also presented. The choice of the substitutes of milk protein in ice cream is not only related to the change of nutritional properties, but also results in obtaining new technological features. Proteins have a significant influence on the structure and consistency of the product. However, to generate the ice cream with substitutes comparable in the taste and color with these ones of traditional milk protein, the appropriate amount of stabilizing system, flavor and food dye should be applied in technological process.
      KEY WORDS: protein, ice cream, milk, , plant milk substitutes
  • 20 Pumps Indispensable in Food Industry – Grzegorz Wojciechowski
  • 22 Campylobacter spp. – Occurrence in Foods in the EU – Elżbieta Maćkiw, Magdalena Modzelewska, Łukasz Mąka, Kamila Pawłowska, Monika Stasiak
    • Campylobacter species are the most frequently identified bacterial factor of human gastroenteritis in many developed and developing countries. Campylobacteriosis has continued to be the most commonly reported zoonosis in humans in the EU since 2005. Campylobacter spp. are widely distributed in nature, their reservoir is the gastrointestinal tract of birds and mammals, both farmed and wild. The source of human infection is food of animal origin (mostly poultry meat), milk, water or direct contact with the animals (pets) which are carriers of the discussed bacteria.
      KEY WORDS: Campylobacter spp., food
  • 27 New Forms of Lysozyme – Potential for Production and Application – Grzegorz Leśnierowski, Renata Cegielska-Radziejewska
    • Lysozyme is an enzyme protein, commonly found in nature, characterized by many useful properties that allow its versatile use. The current practical application of the enzyme concerns monomer, and soon, also its modified forms. Wider use should be linked just with the possibility of using the modified enzyme and not only in the food industry but also in medicine, veterinary medicine and pharmacology. Current research allowed developing original methods to modify lysozyme, enabling manufacture of a high quality product. Some of them, like thermal, thermal-chemical, and chemical or membrane method are easy to be transferred from the laboratory conditions to the pilot or even industrial scale. The aim of this study was to present the methods of obtaining and modifying lysozyme causing its oligomerization, the methods of assessment of physicochemical properties of the modified lysozyme and its antibacterial action and the possibility of its practical application.
      KEY WORDS: lysozyme, modification of lysozyme, antibacterial activity, monomer, dimer
  • 37 Hydrocolloids as Stabilizers used in Food Industry. Part 2. Characteristics of Selected Biopolymers and Overview of Research Problems – Agnieszka Anna Pilarska, Jolanta Gawałek
    • In this article, the selected examples of hydrocolloids (macromolecular compounds, biopolymers) were described, with consideration of their origin, chemical structure and individual functions in food. Also the references were made to the issue of scientific research carried out in the world scientific centers. The employed types of analytical techniques and technological solutions were presented. The attention was also paid to the increasing importance of nanotechnology for food industry, as a supporting field for preparation of stabilizers with specific functional properties, and consequently, production of safe food. This article is a continuation of work by the same authors, presented in the previous issue of the journal.
      KEY WORDS: polysaccharides, proteins, stabilizers’ properties and structure, synergism, nanotechnology
  • 42 Enzymatic Cleaning in Food Industry – Joanna Piepiórka-Stepuk, Sylwia Mierzejewska, Mariusz Wlazło
    • The work presents the enzymatic cleaning, as innovative solution, employed in food industry. The enzyme term was defined. The classification of enzymes was carried out and their theoretical models were discussed. The positive results of research relative to cleaning effectiveness with the enzyme solutions were presented. Particular attention was paid to effective action to remove biofilm fouling.
      KEY WORDS: cleanining, enzyms, biofilm


  • 46 Sustainable Packaging. Examples of the European Projects – Beata Marchand
    • Throughout the world, the research on innovative sustainable packaging is carried out, that is expected to bring environmental benefits, as well as tangible social and financial benefits. In the recent years, the EU has actively implemented correlated projects, financed or co-financed with EU funds, with the purpose of creating or improving bioplastics, which will replace coatings made on the basis of fossil fuels in food packaging with the coatings manufactured from organic wastes of the food industry; in particular, the discussed coatings will be based on whey and whey protein concentrate, dried juice and potato pulp. The projects: WheyLayer, WheyLayer 2, BioBoard, ThermoWhey and WheyPack concerning the sustainable packaging and constituting the continuation of the research within the frames of earlier projects, have been presented.
      KEY WORDS: sustainable packaging, whey, potato pulp