Contents 4/2015

Przemysł Spożywczy 4/2015

ECONOMY

  • 2 Production of Red Meat in Poland – Robert Mroczek
    • The producers of red meat in Poland are faced with many problems. Since 2007, a regress has been commenced in pork production and it is continued until now. Following the decreasing pig population, import of pork and livestock is rapidly increased. Since 2008, we have become a net importer of pork. The reasons for this situation include e.g. scattering of production, low effectiveness, and lack of ties between pig producers and processing sector, or the increasing competition. In 2014, one factor more appeared, i.e. introduction of embargo on the Polish pork by the third states in connection with the detection of African Swine Fever (ASF) cases in Poland as well as with the Ukrainian crisis. The situation of the beef market is influenced by the prohibition of ritual slaughter what resulted in a loss of attractive outlet markets. Low consumption of beef causes that the rise of its production is limited.
      KEY WORDS: market, meat, pork, beef
  • 10 Model of Cluster of Producers of Traditional Dairy Products in Podlasie Region – Zbigniew Nasalski, Andrzej Fetliński, Maria Andrzej Faliński
    • The most important determinant of effective implementation of the clusters in the food economy is the rationality of their objectives and structure. Concentration and specialization of the producers of traditional dairy products in the Podlasie region predisposes them to create a cluster initiative. Analysis of functioning of the mentioned entities and their environment indicates the justness of implementing the cluster model similar to the Italian industrial district; whose most generally recognized features include lack of formalization of the structure and the lack of capital ties. It also seems reasonable functioning of the network broker who would coordinate and activate operation of the whole structure of the cluster and build an efficient partnership and cooperation. In the first step of initiating cooperation, we should stimulate awareness of functioning within the cluster and the ability to utilize its potential. The present article was created as a result of the implementation 7FP TRADEIT project in the Podlasie region.
      KEY WORDS: cluster, traditional dairy products, competitiveness, food producers
  • 14 Fisheries 2030 – the World Bank prognosis – Piotr J. Bykowski
    • Fishery which provides 7% of the animal proteins destined for direct consumption has an important place in solving the global problem of food supply. The prognosis developed by the World Bank foresees further growth of this sector where fish supply will rise from 154 million tons in 2011 to 186 million tons in 2030. In 2030 products stemming from aquaculture will amount to 60% of fish destined for direct consumption. China will produce 37% of the global fish production (17% sea fish and 57% aquaculture fish) and additionally, China will be responsible for 38% of global fish consumption (excluding fodder fish). According to prognosis the consumption for the period from 2010 to 2030 will decrease in Japan, Europe, Central Asia, Central America and Africa below the Sahara. Major changes are foreseen in the species makeup for the aquaculture fish and the quickest growth is estimated in the global deliveries of tilapia, carp species and trafish (panga).
      KEY WORDS: Fisheries, aquaculture, fish deliveries, fish consumption

 TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 26 Compressors and Vacuum Pumps of Various Construction Types – Piotr Cyklis
    • In the paper, actual requirements for compression technology in food processing industry have been briefly described. There are requirements for vacuum pressure levels, but first of all, those ones concerning the air purity for food production have to be considered. The main types of vacuum pumps related to the requirements have been described with the pressure and flow limitations. Contemporary examples for each of the most frequently used vacuum pump types have been shown with its characteristics, manufactured by the leading world producers. In summary the actual innovation trends in vacuum pumps have been pointed out.
      KEY WORDS: vacuum pumps’ review, hygienic requirements
  • 32 MALDI – Modern Analytical Method – Justyna Czyrko, Diana Małgorzata Bruś, Olena Mykhailiv
    • Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization – Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) Detector is a rapid and accurate method allowing determining a molecular weight. This technique employs a soft ionization which does not damage a sample structure. The above-mentioned innovative method allows the examination of large molecules such peptides, proteins, nucleotides, carbohydrates, lipids, and other biologically active molecules. MALDI-TOF in conjunction with other methods is an efficient system that is widely utilized in proteomics, analysis of polymers, or imaging. In the area of microbiological analysis, MALDI technique has made a revolution in a swift and precise identification of microorganisms. The food industry is a field in which the MALDI technique is increasingly applied, for example, to monitor the microbiological quality of food, design and control food, analyze compounds’ mixtures, their composition and structural properties.
      KEY WORDS: technique MALDI, mass spectrometry, food analysis
  • 36 Contaminants of Milk and Dairy Products. Notifications to RASFF System – Aneta Brodziak, Paulina Złotek, Jolanta Król
    • The results of Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) functioning are presented, with a special regard to Polish notifications in relation to raw milk and dairy products. General information about the rules of RASFF functioning in the European Union is given. If we take into consideration the number and frequency of notifications sent to the system, it can be stated that milk and its products are found on the second place among all foods and feeds. The most frequent contamination of milk and dairy products reported to the RASFF in 2013 was caused the presence of pathogenic microflora, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella. This was also confirmed in the case of notifications given by Poland in the years 2009-2014.
      KEY WORDS: contamination, RASFF, milk, dairy products
       

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 40 Foods Fraud – Fake Brand – Wojciech Sawicki
    • Economic transformations, occurring all over the world have resulted in the growing interest in brand products which – in the opinion of the consumers – are of higher quality. The greater and greater demand on such products is, unfortunately, favourable for development of adulterated products’ sector. Until now, the fake products have been usually relating to the cloths, cosmetics or household appliances. Recently, it has been revealed that the problem refers also to food products. The problem lies in the fact that the adulterated food products are not to be distinguished from the original ones by the consumers. Moreover, the adulterated products may constitute a threat to human health and life. The article deals with the fraud procedures in the food industry, presenting the most spectacular disclosed cases.
      KEY WORDS: food fraud, brand, quality
  • 44 Genetically Modified Food in Opinions of the Urban Population. Survey Study – Zygmunt Litwińczuk, Monika Molga
    • The conducted survey (in which most of the respondents had higher education) showed that the respondents possessed a superficial knowledge of genetically modified organisms. Most of them knew the term GMO and were able to explain it. Over half of the surveyed persons approved the use of GMO in the production of medicines and removal of contaminants from the environment, but few respondents were in favour of the use of GMO in food production (5-7% of the surveyed ones). Some of the respondents have admitted that they probably consume genetically modified food because they do not read the ingredients listed on the labels of the products they purchase.
      KEY WORDS: GM food, public knowledge of GMO

LAW

  • 48 Genetically Modified Food – Legal and Environmental Aspects – Iwona Wrześniewska-Wal
    • The risks and uncertainties as well as other threats are inherent elements of introducing GM food to the market; they are the sufficient arguments for the introduction of a special legal regime in this respect. There is a need for control of the mentioned risk, especially of ecological and health hazards. The restrictions, as introduced by legal regulations, should respect all fundamental rights, including the right to health care and legally protected public goods, such as environmental protection, the security of the citizens and the right to information. The issue of ensuring protection in marketing GM foods is regulated by the international law and regional (e.g. in the European Union) and national rules. In 2014, Polish law on genetically modified organisms was amended with the aim to increase the safety of laboratory GMOs, i.e. the so-called contained use. It does not mean, however, the completion of legislative work on GMO.
      KEY WORDS: food, GMOs, the market, environment