Contents 4/2013

Okładka 4/2013 Przemysł SpożywczyECONOMY

  • 2 Sektor mięsny w Polsce – problemy w produkcji i przetwórstwie – Roman Urban
    • The meat sector is affected by difficult macroeconomic conditions, the deep crisis in the pig farming as well as by growing high prices of raw materials and products. This results in decreasing domestic demand, large pork import and reduction in processing margins. At the same time, there is maintained a rapid growth in meat export; the relationships between the entire sector and the world market, the market, production and processing of poultry meat is developing. Also, the turnover of meat companies is increased and a safe financial condition is maintained, what indicates that the enterprises are skillfully adapted to difficult conditions (market and macroeconomic). These skills are not possessed by the producers of pork, mainly due to structural reasons.
      KEY WORDS: demand and supply, export and import, prices, the meat industry, poultry industry, the financial results
  • 8 Polish Dairy Products – Supply and Demand – Piotr Szajner
    • In a market oriented economy, demand is a key factor determining the development of markets. In the first period of transition in Poland the consumption of dairy products showed a considerable decline which was partly compensated with growing exports. Since 2006 the domestic consumption of dairy products has been moderately increasing which along with a strong demand on foreign markets are the main factors of the sector’s development. The increase in consumption is accompanied by substantial changes in its structure. Domestic demand shows low income elasticity but there are large differences between the particular products. The export allows for utilization of excessive supplies and at the same time, confirms strong position of Polish dairy sector on foreign markets.
      KEY WORDS: dairy products, demand, market, foreign trade


  • 14 Dairy Products as Carriers of Functional Ingredients (Health-Promoting Components) – Justyna Żulewska
    • Consumers, as being more and more aware of relation between proper diet and good health, seek for functional food products. Dairying accounts for the largest share of functional foods. Milk not only contains lots of nutrients important for growth, optimal health status and overall well-being, but also is considered an ideal medium for delivering other nutrients which are not present in milk in significant quantities. This creates number of possibilities for food industry to use milk as a medium for the ingredients with inadequate consumption and to improve nutritive value of dairy products.
      KEY WORDS: functional food, dairy products, bioactive compounds
  • 24 Polymorphism of milk proteins and their suitability for cheesemaking – Arnold Reps, Krystyna Wiśniewska, Stanisław Kamiński, Agnieszka Jankowska, Anna Ruść
    • Cheese yield does not always depend on the protein content in milk. The amino-acid composition of milk proteins and parallel milk suitability for cheesemaking is determined by DNA. Gene mutations – alleles – have an effect on the properties of protein fractions in milk. Via cows insemination, one can affect the genes responsible for synthesis of particular fractions of milk proteins. Milk from cows with genotype AB or BB of ß-lactoglobulin and with genotype BB of κ-casein contains more casein and less of whey proteins. This milk has good clotting properties during the cheesemaking. Among the bulls used to inseminate the cows, only a few have genotypes suitable for both genes.
      KEY WORDS: milk proteins, cheese yield, protein coagulation, milk protein polymorphism
  • 30 Vacuum and Vacuum Pumps in the Food Industry – Zygmunt Zander, Lidia Zander, Fabian Dajnowiec
    • Basic information related with vacuum in the industrial systems has been presented. There are described methods of vacuum generation which utilize equipment being of the greatest importance for food processing. There are considered the jet vacuum pumps (ejectors) and mechanical, liquid ring pumps showing the principles of their construction and operation along with the simple method for assessment of the capacity of gas to be evacuated from the system in order to achieve and maintain the proper depth of the vacuum. The examples of applications of both types of vacuum pumps working alone and in a hybrid system in the evaporation systems, flash cooling and de-aeration of liquid foods are given. Also, the vacuum applications in food packaging and pneumatic transport of particulate solids are mentioned.
      KEY WORDS: vacuum, jet vacuum pump, liquid ring vacuum pump, vacuum pump capacity
  • 38 Design of Thermal Processes for Acid and Acidified Food. Part II – Richard Podolak, Piotr Kołakowski
    • This paper is focused on appropriate design of thermal processes for acid and acidified shelf-stable products. The main purpose of the heat treatment applied to acid and acidified food is to bring them to a condition of „commercial sterility”, hence to destroy vegetative cells of microorganisms of public health significance, and those of non-health significance, such as spoilage microorganisms capable of multiplying in food products during their storage, distribution, retail selling and holding by the end user. Thermally processed acid foods have a good record of food safety and shelf stability and the parameters required to ensure safety and stability are well understood by the food industry. However, occasional outbreaks due to the under thermal processing of acid foods are observed. Therefore, the thermal process for acid food is required to be established by a competent person with the extensive knowledge in food microbiology, thermobacteriology and thermal processing in order to provide sufficient lethality to render a food product safe.
      KEY WORDS: acid food, acidified food, thermal process
  • 40 The Quality System of Beef – QMP Promotes PZPBM (Polish Association of Beef Cattle Producers)


  • 41 Preventive Maintenance – Taking Care of Costs and Food Safety – Małgorzata Galczak


  • 44 The Dangerous Viruses in Food – Halina Ścieżyńska, Elżbieta Maćkiw, Łukasz Mąka, Kamila Pawłowska, Jacek Postupolski
    • The occurrence of food – borne diseases in humans may be associated with presence of viruses in food and water. Most food -borne infections are caused by noroviruses, rotaviruses, hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus. An increased number of food-borne viral outbreaks is recorded in EU. Reasons for this include the improved diagnostic methods that have enhanced detection of some virus groups. Viruses may contaminate food either through contamination at source, principally through sewage pollution of the environment, or in association with food processing through inadequate hygiene practices of operatives or systems. Consequently, many different food products such as shellfish, fresh and frozen fruits, vegetables, and a great variety of ready-to-eat foods have been implicated in food-borne viral infections. Viruses do not multiply in foods, but may persist for extended periods of time as infectious particles in the environment or in food. At the EU-level as well in Poland it is unknown how much viral disease can be attributed to food-borne spread.
      KEY WORDS: viruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses, Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis E virus, foodstuff


  • 47 The Festival of Food Sector in Poznan
  • 48 Business Information