Contents 4/2012

Przemysł Spożywczy 4/2012ECONOMY

  • 2 Food Prices in 2011 and Changes Forecast for 2012 – Krystyna Świetlik
    • In 2011, the tendency of real increase in food prices in Poland, as observed since 2004, was continued. The real prices of food and non-alcoholic beverages grew by 1.1% in 2011 compared to 2010, and by 8.4% compared to 2003. Prices of all basic food groups, except vegetables and eggs, were increased during the last year. It is anticipated that food prices will be slightly more slowly increased in 2012 compared to the previous year, due to reduced internal demand, a stronger position of Polish zloty and a lower increase in prices of raw agricultural products on the world markets.
      KEY WORDS: inflation, food prices, world prices
  • 8 Gazelle of the Business Among Small and Medium-Sized Food Enterprises – Jadwiga Drożdż
    • Producers of food products, drinks and tobacco products constituted the 6.2% of the most dynamic small and medium-sized food enterprises in the 12th edition of the ranking Gazelle of Business 2011. It included 233 enterprises, ranked among the food industry companies. They were representatives of all industries (with the exception sugar and spirit). In large most Production and meat processing, production of food concentrates, manufacture of the milk and dairy products and production of fruit-vegetable preserves were most numerously represented groups. In some industries leaders of this ranking increased their sales even repeatedly, and in many cases, they maintained their position from the previous year.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, small and medium-sized food enterprises, ranking of the most dynamic companies


  • 12 Water Activity of Dairy Products. Part II – Michał A. Olkowski, Antoni Pluta, Anna Berthold-Pluta, Jolanta Wiska
    • The second part of this review discussed the impact of water activity on: ripening and characteristics of the cheese, production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria and their growth in fermented milk, as well as on the viability and development of microorganisms (both beneficial and saprophytic) in the dairy products. However, it was described that during cheese ripening water activity decreases. Effect of water activity on the catalytic activity of enzymes has been explained, as well as the correlation between the amount of organic acids produced by bacteria and water activity in the production of yogurt has been described.
      KEYWORDS: water activity, microorganisms, cheeses, fermented milk
  • 18 Disinfection in Plants of Food Industry. Microbiological Problems – Anna Koziróg
    • The main problems of disinfection in the food manufacturing facilities are primarily associated with resistance of microorganisms to biocides and biofilms’ formation. The cause of microbiological problems in the plant may include poorly performed cleaning and disinfection processes, improperly designed surface containing cracks, clefts, scratches or too much roughness, which very easily settle microorganisms. This paper describes the types and mechanisms of resistance that can occur among microorganisms, as well as the factors favoring the formation of biofilms with a high resistance to biocides. Also, the most common mistakes in the process of disinfection were demonstrated.
      KEY WORDS: biocides, resistance of microorganisms, biofilms
  • 25 Floors in the Plants of Food Industry – Sylwia Mierzejewska
    • The article presents information about the modern flooring used in the food industry and discusses their properties. Describes in detail the anti-bacterial floor, to the manufacture of which the silver ions.Describes in detail the production of antibacterial flooring which uses silver ions. The use of modern solutions in the design and modernization of the plant much easier to maintain proper cleanliness in the plant and can reduce the costs associated with cleaning and disinfection of the production area.
      KEY WORDS: hygiene, floor washing, floor, floor antibacterial


  • 30 Minerals in Milk and Dairy Products – Dorota Zaręba, Emilia Trebnio, Małgorzata Ziarno
    • The consumer’s interest in functional aspects of food becomes greater and greater; milk and dairy products constitute a complementary source of many elements essential for human health. In terms of nutritional value, they are found among the most versatile and nutritious foods. They supply of many nutrients, elements including, and the accompanying substances facilitating their bioavailability to human body. The preferred ratio of milk proteins, vitamins, magnesium and calcium in milk and dairy products makes them the balanced source of both elements. And it is difficult to replace them with other food products. The custom of eating milk and dairy products should be inculcated in childhood, then reduces or eliminates the risk of osteoporosis in old age. It is worth to mention about it now that upward trend in the consumption of milk and most milk products is observed in Poland.
      KEY WORDS: milk, dairy products, macroelements, microelements


  • 36 Packing Machines in the Food Industry.Safety Requirements at the European Union Market – Jerzy Stępień
    • Packaging machines should meet the requirements concerning safety and health care. Inclusion of the Polish national economy in the European Union market has caused the necessity to adjust the mentioned requirements to the EU regulations. In the Polish Standardization Committee the topic of the packaging machinery and equipment is subordinated to the Technical Committee no. 162 Logistics, Bar Codes and Stock Management. Within the framework of its activities, standards on the safety of packaging machines have been implemented.
      KEY WORDS: packing machines, safety, requirements, standards


  • 40 GMO in European Union. Legal Regulations – Izabela Błaszkiewicz
    • Genetically modified organisms are regulated in the EU mainly in view of ensuring environmental protection and food and feed safety. The EU GM legislative package consists of several regulations and directives. The general rule is a prohibition on deliberate release and use of GMO unless specifically authorised. GM food and feed are subject to double safety approval which can be referred to as environmental approval and food approval. Risk assessment is carried out by EFSA, risk management measures are adopted by Members States and the European Commission. GMOs as such as well as GMO products are subject to free movement of goods. Nevertheless, Member States have the possibility to restrict the application of the principle. The EU GM package consists also of rules on labelling and traceability and is completed by provisions on tranboundary movements and contained use.
      KEY WORDS: GMO, EU, deliberate release into the environment, authorisation, labelling


  • 44 Business Information