Contents 4/2011

Przemysł Spożywczy okładka 4/2011ECONOMY

  • 2 Polish Food Producers on CIS Countries – Mirosława Tereszczuk, Łukasz Ambroziak
    • The paper discusses the competitiveness of the Polish food producers on the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries’ markets. In the material, the competitiveness was analyzed on the ground of the results of foreign trade in agricultural products in the period 2000-2010. During ten years the export of agro-food products increased from 0.5 to 1.4 billion euro, import increased from 0.1 to 0.3 billion euro. The major CIS countries with which Poland is conducting the revived foreign trade of agri-food products are: Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. The increase in export of Polish agro-food products to CIS countries and consolidating on them of item of Polish food producers in the recent time would not be possible, if they did not have comparative edges above the producers from other countries.
      KEY WORDS: competitiveness, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), food producers, foreign trade, agri-food products


  • 8 Application of Low Pressure Air in Food Technology – Piotr P. Lewicki
    • The paper presents advantages of processing of food in vacuum, and methods to produce low pressure in the system. Low pressure of air allows to process foods at temperatures much lower than those applied at atmospheric pressure, reduces contact of food with oxygen, and the air in packages can be substituted with inert gas. Moreover, it reduces energy intensity of liquid concentration process, and allows for quick cooling of products in aseptic processing. Low air pressure in the system can be produced taking advantage of phase change vapor-liquid, using energy of a stream of working medium, and applying vacuum pumps. Their cons and pros are presented in the paper. Examples of low pressure application in food processing are also described.
      KEY WORDS: low pressure, phase change: vapor – liquid, stream of working medium, vacuum pumps
  • 14 Chloropropanols and Chloroesters in Food Staffs – Arkadiusz Szterk, Marek Roszko, Bożena Waszkiewicz-Robak, Rita Kromołowska, Jakub Mikiciuk, Małgorzata Czerwonka
    • 3-Monochloropropanol (3 – MCPD) is the main chloropropanol found in acid – HVP (acid-hydrolyzed vegetable proteins) and was first described by Velíšek and co – workers in 1978. Besides HVP and soy sauce produced by acid hydrolysis, the food groups most likely to contain 3 – MCPD are retail ready – to – eat processed foods including bread, cakes, biscuits, cheese, cooked/cured fish, and meat; licorice confectionery; and commercial food ingredients such as processed garlic, liquid smokes, and malts. The major formation pathways include mainly thermally driven reactions that require chloride ion, the backbone of the molecule being furnished by different precursors such as glycerol, monoacylglycerols, and lysophospholipids. During the late 1980s, acid – HVP manufacturers implemented the necessary procedures to minimize 3 – MCPD formation. For example, careful control of the acid hydrolysis step and subsequent neutralization or alternatively decomposition of 3 – MCPD by a subsequent alkali treatment stage are known approaches. Further, some manufacturers have changed processes, e.g., they employ enzyme hydrolysis; addition of flavoring.
      KEY WORDS: chloropropanols, chloroesters, toxic substances, acid hydrolysis
  • 18 Solvents of the Future – Ionic Liquids and Supercritical Fluids – Ewa Majewska, Ewa Białecka-Florjańczyk
    • Ionic liquids and supercritical fluids are a new class of solvents. Their unique properties make them an excellent alternative to traditional solvents in many technological processes. They pose a threat neither to human health nor to natural environment – in that way they meet the ‘green chemistry’ requirements. Their application meets, however, some barriers which stem from high costs, when it comes to ionic liquids, and employing high pressure equipment as well as bearing expenses on compressing solvents in the case of supercritical fluid extraction.
      KEY WORDS: supercritical fluids, ionic liquids, extraction
  • 26 Cleaning Methods Used in the Dairy Industry – Joanna Piepiórka-Stepuk
    • This article applies to cleaning techniques that are used in processing milk, taking into account the technological equipment used in the manufacture of products other than milk itself (it refers to curd, cheese, etc.) The classification of cleaning methods with a short description was discussed. Attention was paid to the fundamental risks associated with the effectiveness of individual cleaning system components in the system employed in washing; the methods for assessing the effectiveness of cleaning were cited.
      KEY WORDS: washing techniques, hygiene in milk processing, assessing the effectiveness of cleaning


  • 32 Health-Promoting Properties of Probiotic Microorganisms – Marcin Schmidt, Agnieszka Olejnik-Schmidt
    • Major group of health-promoting foods are fermented products containing probiotics. Beneficial effects of probiotics on human health are provided by prevention, decreasing occurrence and soothing outcome of several illnesses associated with gastrointestinal tract and immune responses. According to WHO/FAO guidelines from 2001 year probiotics health-claims need to be supported by scientific evidence. Here we describe selected examples of scientific approaches to verify probiotic influence on human organism.
      KEY WORDS: probiotic, pro-health food, nutrigenomics
  • 34 Caseinomacropeptide – Technological and Nutritive Properties – Justyna Kozioł, Waldemar Gustaw
    • Caseinomacropeptide (CMP) is a fragment of κ-casein that is released by proteolytic enzymes. CMP occurs in bovine milk in two genetic variants, A and B, which differ with amino acid composition. In the recent years, CMP has become a subject of growing interest, due to its beneficial, biological and functional properties. CMP has ability to bind toxins and inhibit bacterial and viral adhesion. It is also considered as a prebiotic in functional foods. It significantly reduces gastric acid secretion. CMP is the only naturally occurring protein that does not contain phenylalanine; this is why it is often utilized as a source of protein for dietary management of phenylketonuria.
      KEY WORDS: caseinomacropeptide, glycolysation, technological properties, phenylketonuria


  • 37 Packaging for Milk and Dairy Products – Wojciech Kozak
    • The article gives the presentation of packaging materials and packaging used for dairy products taking into account requirements they have to fulfill in case of particular dairy products. Also, properties, advantages and disadvantages of particular solutions are discussed considering quality protection of the dairy products. Particular packaging forms and their application are indicated. The author discusses current trends and modern solutions, increasing efficiency of protection of dairy products and their attractiveness on the market.
      KEY WORDS: milk, milk drinks, cheeses, yogurts, glass, paper, wood, aluminium, plastic


  • 40 Fairs
  • 42 Conferences
  • 44 Business Information