Contents 4/2019; Tome 73

ECONOMY

  • 2 Red and Poultry Meat Sector in Poland – Robert Mroczek (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.4.1)
    • In the years 2015-2018, production of slaughter slaughterhouse in Poland increased by 17.6% to approx. 5.060 mln tonnes (in warm carcass). The fastest growing livestock production of poultry, at a rate of 8.2% per year, slowly beef by 6.8% per year and the slowest pigs 2.2% per year. The production of slaughter animals is an important part of global and commercial agricultural production in Poland with a share of around 28 and 36% respectively and it is the basic raw material for meat industry companies. Meat industry (red and poultry meat) is the largest branch of the food industry in Poland. It produces almost 30% of the value of sold production of the entire food industry (including tobacco), and the export of meat and its processed products is about 23% of exports of food industry products. In addition, this sector has a positive trade balance in meat and meat products. Despite unfavorable market conditions in 2015-2018, especially for the pork market, the meat industry developed production and improved the economic and financial results. In the years 2015-2018, production of slaughter slaughterhouse in Poland increased by 17.6% to approx. 5.060 mln tonnes (in warm carcass). The fastest growing livestock production of poultry, at a rate of 8.2% per year, slowly beef by 6.8% per year and the slowest pigs 2.2% per year. The production of slaughter animals is an important part of global and commercial agricultural production in Poland with a share of around 28 and 36% respectively and it is the basic raw material for meat industry companies. Meat industry (red and poultry meat) is the largest branch of the food industry in Poland. It produces almost 30% of the value of sold production of the entire food industry (including tobacco), and the export of meat and its processed products is about 23% of exports of food industry products. In addition, this sector has a positive trade balance in meat and meat products. Despite unfavorable market conditions in 2015-2018, especially for the pork market, the meat industry developed production and improved the economic and financial results.
      KEY WORDS: meat production, meat industry, poultry industry

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 10 The Influence of Raw Materials on The Properties of High-Fiber Preparations – Jacek Anioła (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.4.2)
    • Increased intake of dietary fiber is one of the ways to protect against diet-related diseases , which constitute a serious health problem. Thus, the growing interest in concentrated sources of fiber, especially those aimed at preventing specific diseases. The fiber obtained from various raw material sources differs in the fractional composition, and hence the properties and physiological impact. High-fiber preparations obtained from waste cereal sources with a high content of insoluble fraction (IDF) are directed more at filling the intestines and stimulating peristalsis, so they can be used as dietary supplements to support weight loss and counteract constipation. In turn, fruit preparations containing more soluble fraction (SDF), especially pectins, are effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of atherosclerosis and diabetes. Interesting,  however, are examples of physiological effects of preparations obtained from less conventional sources.
      KEY WORDS: dietary fiber, high-fiber preparations, sources of fiber, physiological properties
  • 16 Dietary supplements supporting weight reduction – Magdalena Maszewska, Anna Florowska, Justyna Pękul (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.4.3)
    • Supplements supporting weight reduction are foodstuffs whose purpose is, among others, supplementing a normal diet with substances having a physiological effect, a form allowing for dosage, intended for consumption in small, measured unit. The most commonly used bioactive ingredients in dietary supplements supporting weigh reduction include: chromium, green tea extract, bitter orange extract, L-carnitine, fiber. Dietary supplements placed on the market must meet the requirements of the Act on Food Safety and Nutrition of August 25, 2006 (Journal of Laws of 2010 No. 136, item 914, as amended), Regulation of the Minister of Health on composition and labeling of dietary supplements dated 9 October 2007. (Journal of Laws of 2007 No. 196, item 1425, as amended) and the Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 23 December 2014 on the labeling of particular types of foodstuffs (Journal of Laws of 2015, item. 29). In Poland, the supervision over the introduction of dietary supplements supporting weight reduction on the market is exercised by the Główny Inspektorat Sanitarny, whose duty is, among others, product registration checking compliance with the requirements of food law and examining whether dietary supplement does not have the properties of the medicinal product.
      KEY WORDS: dietary supplements, weight loss, obesity, active components

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 24 Application of Vacuum Pump in The Food Industry – Paulina Zdanowska (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.4.4)
    • The subject of application of vacuum pump technology in the food industry was discussed. The solutions currently used in industry (eg for lyophilisation, concentration of solutions, vacuum cooling, in stuffers and fillers for solid, loose and liquid food products, in vacuum packaging, pneumatic transport) as well as those over which scientific research is ongoing (eg vacuum drying, combined vacuum methods with the use of new technologies – ultrasound, microwaves). The introduction to the study describes the basic concepts of vacuum. Then, the types of vacuum pumps, the physical basis of phenomena related to vacuum pumping, the construction of pumps popularly used in food processing and in laboratories were described. The structure and principle of operation of Roots pumps and water rings vacuum pumps for numerous industrial applications are schematically presented.
      KEY WORDS: Roots pump, water rings vacuum pumps, steam jet ejectors, vacuum technology
  • 29 The Use of Polysaccharides as Coating Materials Used in Microencapsulation – Ewelina Drozińska, Aleksandra Kanclerz, Marcin Andrzej Kurek (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.4.5)
    • Microencapsulation is the process of closing a core material, usually volatile or sensitive, in a coating of another material, in order to protect it from volatilization or the harmful effects of environmental factors such as light, temperature or atmospheric oxygen. The coated material are usually vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, oils, essential oils. The coating material is a substance chemically matched to the core and provides protection and prolonged durability, such as polysaccharides, proteins, natural and synthetic polymers. The type of coating material and the microencap sulation method determine the functional and technological properties of the capsules. Commonly used coating material are polysaccharides, which are characterized by the ability to form gels, to emulsify and stabilize the emulsions and chemical inertness. Polysaccharides belonging to the dietary fiber fraction, such as β-glucan, inulin, gum arabic or pectin, also show a number of health-promoting properties.
      KEY WORDS: microencapsulation, polysaccharides, dietary fiber, coating material
  • 38 Selected Applications of Ozone in The Food Industry – Maciej Balawejder, Tomasz Piechowiak (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.4.6)
    • Ozone is a high reactive triatomic form of oxygen. The basic method of ozone generation base on the electric discharges (especially silent, corona and surface), which energy causes the formation of triatomic molecules in the air or oxygen stream. The ozone can be use in the industry as a gaseous form or as a solution. Ozone due to its properties, it could be used as a disinfectant or deodorizer in many industries. Ozone is able to degrade organic substances, and can be applied in the food industry, especially for removing pesticide residues and extending shelf life of raw materials of plant origin. Thanks to ozonization, the selected parameters of food industry raw materials, such as antioxidant potential, polyphenol content or enzymatic activity can also be modified. The biggest advantage of using ozone is that it does not cause additional fouling, because in contact with solid materials it decomposes into molecular oxygen.
      KEY WORDS: ozone, shelf life, pesticide residue, enzymatic activity
  • 46 Preservation of Meat and Meat Products Through Use of High-Pressure Technologies – Opportunities, Quality, Safety – Halina Makała (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.4.7)
    • The paper presents the possibilities of using high pressures as an effective technology to improve the safety of meat and meat production. The possibilities of its application both as a fast and non-thermal method of preservation as well as creation of products with new functional and sensory features have been characterized. The HPP method allows to maintain nutritional value in meat and meat products and to extend the shelf life without the use of preservatives or additives. Depending on the applied pressure level, HPP positively affects the sensory, rheological and textural characteristics of meat and meat products. With a short processing time at ambient temperature, the majority of pathogenic microorganisms that spoil products are inactivated. HPP may be used to lower the salt (sodium) content in the products, however, to a limited extent resulting from increased leakage or deterioration of meat pieces.
      KEY WORDS: high pressure, meat and meat products, food safety
  • 53 Compressors and Blowers in Food Processing Industry – Piotr Cyklis (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.4.8)
    • The publication presents the requirements for compression technology in the food industry. Theoretical basics of compressors and blower’s operation are discussed and the general classification of compression devices is given. Modern compressor designs are characterized by high manufacturing precision, the use of modern materials and optimization of shape through simulation calculations to achieve high efficiency. It has been shown that when selecting a compressor, the purchase price alone should not be the only criterion for selection. All operating costs should be analysed over the entire amortization period of the machine. This applies to the energy costs, maintenance and repair costs, and possible downtime due to failures. The calculation should also take into account the possibility of using waste energy from the cooling of the machine and compressed gas.
      KEY WORDS: compressors, blowers, higienic requirements
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EVENTS

  • 8 Polish dairy companies at SIAL 2019
  • 21 Nielsen: Healthy food is growing in strength!
  • 28 Poles eat more than 40 kg of sugar annually!
  • 35 The green future of packaging
  • 51 Hard-working year. Meeting of the National Council and the National Assembly of Delegates