Contents 3/2018; tome 72

ECONOMY

  • 2 Red and Poultry Meat Industry. Development, Challenges and Hazards – Robert Mroczek (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.3.1)
    • The poultry market has become the largest market for slaughter livestock in Poland in the recent years; its commodity production in 2016 amounted to PLN 11.4 billion and was by 12.9% higher than that of pig production. Beef producers also strengthened their position, but pork producers lost their importance. The meat industry (red and poultry meat) is the largest branch of the food industry in Poland. It produces about 30% of the value of sold production of the entire food industry (including tobacco) and almost one in four employees of the food industry works in it, and the share of meat and its products in the export of food industry products is around 23%.
      KEY WORDS: meat production, meat industry, poultry industry
  • 8 Polish Foreign Trade of Dairy Products – Piotr Szajner (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.3.2)
    • The value of Polish foreign trade in milk and dairy products has been growing on a regular basis. However the trade becomes more and more of inter-branch nature. Polish dairy sector still remains a net exporter. Hence, milk production considerably exceeds its consumption and dairy exports are of great importance in the balance sheet. Bulk exports means strong correlation between the domestic and the world prices. The structure of exports is dominated by processed products ready for consumption. However, the preserved products (skimmed milk powder – SMP, butter, hard ripening cheeses) are also important in the export portfolio. The surplus achieved in foreign trade confirms the competitiveness of Polish dairy sector on international markets.
      KEY WORDS: milk, dairy sector, trade, export, import, price, market
  • 12 Determinants of Activities for Science and Research in the Framework Programmes of the European Union – Eugeniusz K. Chyłek, Katarzyna Chyłek, Katarzyna Orzechowska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.3.3)
    • Growth of the efficiency research, science development, innovations and entrepreneurship are the key tasks, required by the European Commission from the countries of the Union. The implementation of the Framework Programmes of the European Union, including the current Horizon 2020 was to ensure harmonious, balanced economic and social development in Europe. This, unfortunately, is not implemented. This paper presents considerations on how to apply for projects under Horizon 2020. The differences and causes of the differentiated levels of use of the EU Framework Programmes, including the Horizon 2020 were indicated.  There was also pointed out the need to take decisive actions in favour of the changes in the way the implementation of the Framework Programmes, in particular in those areas which depend on decisions to be taken on both the European Commission and Poland.
      KEY WORDS: science, European Union Framework Programs,  innovation,  competitiveness, sustainable development

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 20 Monitoring of Process Water Quality as an Important Element of the HACCP System – Anna Rygała, Dorota Kręgiel (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.3.4)
    • In the food industry, water quality is an important factor affecting the health safety of the final products. To counteract food contamination, the HACCP system has been introduced, with the monitoring of technological water as an important element. It includes procedures for identifying and eliminating physico-chemical and microbiological hazards. The assessment of microbiological risk of drinking water, based on new legal acts and epidemiological information, confirms the need to extend of the monitored parameters which may be a potential hazard to human health. The article discusses the causes and effects of microbiological contamination of process water in the aspect of HACCP system, with particular emphasis on heterotrophic microflora.
      KEY WORDS: process water, HACCP system, risk assessment, heterotrophic bacteria
  • 26 Microbiological Hazards Occurring in Meat Products – Elżbieta Maćkiw, Monika Stasiak, Joanna Kowalska, Katarzyna Kucharek (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.3.5)
    • Meat and meat products may be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, both saprophytic and pathogenic. Their occurrence may be the result of primary and secondary contamination. The microbiological quality control of meat and meat products
      is carried out in accordance with food safety criteria and process hygiene criteria established in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005 (with amendments). Microbiological hazards of meat and meat products are mainly associated with the occurrence of microorganisms, such as: Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli.
      KEY WORDS: meat and meat products, safety criteria, microbiological contamination
  • 32 Characteristics and Directions of Wild Game Meat Usage – Tomasz Żmijewski, Wacław Mozolewski, Sylwester Rybaczek (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.3.6)
    • The elaboration presents the legal conditions, structure and prospects for obtaining game meat in Poland. It determines the percentage of parts consumed in carcasses as well as the share of basic elements and chemical composition of meat obtained from the most commonly consumed wild game species. Special attention was paid to the dietary characteristics of meat resulting from low fat content and higher protein content in comparison to the meat obtained from farm animals. The work indicates the occurrence of valuable biologically active substances in wild game, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), carnosine, anserine, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, taurine and mineral salts. It also presents technological characteristics and the possibilities of game meat usage, especially in terms of its sensory and health characteristics.
      KEY WORDS: meat, game meat, chemical composition, characteristics
  • 36 Mould Cheese – the Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes. Characteristics and Risk Assessment – Lidia Stasiak-Różańska, Karolina Kraśniewska, Anna Berthold-Pluta (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.3.7)
    • France is the kingdom of mould cheese. Each region of this country is associated with the unique flavour and taste of cheese appreciated by the connoisseurs. The most popular mould cheeses are Camembert, Brie (covered by mold) as well as Roquefort (overgrown with mold). In Poland, the production of mould cheese was commenced in the 1960s. However, these products have never gained as many supporters on our local market as there are in neighboring European countries. The skepticism of native consumers results somewhat from preferences to traditional flavors, although there are many people who, unreasonably afraid of the risk of mold consumption, avoid this type of products. In our culture there is also an opinion that women in pregnancy should avoid mould cheese for fear of risk of occurrence of pathogenic bacteria from the genus Listeria monocytogenes in these products.  Is it right? The article presents the general characteristics of mold cheese and discusses the threats resulting from the possible presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the mould cheese.
      KEY WORDES: mould cheese, Listeria monocytogenes, listeriosis, food poisoning

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 41 Bioactive Products of Muscle Proteins Proteolysis. Peptides, Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines – Joanna Stadnik, Paulina Kęska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.3.8)
    • Dry-cured meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds formed mainly as a result of proteolysis. Meat, as being a major source of high quality proteins, offers a huge potential as novel source of bioactive peptides. Among various bioactive peptides, the ACE-inhibitory, DPP-IV inhibitory and antioxidative properties are the most widely studied. Their activity has been confirmed in vitro, and in case of dry-cured ham, as well as in vivo. Taste-active amino acids and amino acid derivatives play a crucial role in the taste formation of dry-cured hams and sausages. However, proteolysis products, biogenic amines, may also negatively affect human health. Growing consumer awareness of potential health benefits of food components is a huge opportunity to the meat industry.
      KEY WORDS: peptides, amino acids, biogenic amines, LAB

LOGISTICS – PACKAGING

  • 45 Bioplastics for Food Packaging Production – Hanna Żakowska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.3.9)
    • The search for alternative packaging plastics produced from renewable resources is strictly linked to the attempts of reducing greenhouse gases emissions. The term bioplastics, introduced by the European Bioplastics association, includes both biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials from renewable resources and also biodegradable materials from petrochemicals. Bioplastics for food packaging production include, first of all: classic polymer materials from renewable resources possible to material recycling (e.g. bio PE: Braskem) and biodegradable polymer materials from renewable resources and petrochemicals possible to organic recycling – composting (polylactides group: NatureWorks LLC, starch-polymer compositions Mater-Bi: Novamont Sp.A., cellulose films Natureflex: Futamura, materials Ecoflex and Ecovio: BASF).
      KEY WORDS: food packaging, bioplastics packaging, polymeric materials from renewable resources