Contents 3/2014



  • 2 High Competitiveness of Polish Animal-Origin Products – Mirosława Tereszczuk
    • Polish food sector is one of the most modern ones in the European Union and the Polish animal products are of a high quality and are competitive on foreign markets. This is evidenced by, among others, a very good performance of foreign trade in these products. In the period of 2010-2013, the export of animal-origin products increased by 43% to more than 7 billion Euros, and imports by 42% to 4.2 billion Euros. The excess of exports over imports amounted to 2.7 billion Euros compare to 1.9 billion Euros in 2010. The results of foreign trade in food of animal origin provide a high self-sufficiency in these products and their competitiveness on the international market.
      KEY WORDS: foreign trade, food of animal origin, competitiveness, self-sufficiency
  • 8 “Gazelles of the Business” of Small and Medium-Size Food Enterprises – Jadwiga Drożdż
    • The fourteenth edition of the ranking “Gazele Biznesu” covered 290 producers of food products and beverages, that is, by about 1/4 more than in the previous two editions, with a 1.6-% decline in the total number of recorded companies. More than half of the companies were newcomers to the rankings; the remaining part consisted of the winners of the previous year. Food companies accounted for 6.8% of the most dynamic small and medium-sized industrial companies, i.e. by 1.5 pp more than in the thirteenth edition. They were representatives of all sectors of the food processing, with the exception for oil production, sugar and ice cream production. The most numerous sectors were the meat processing (82 companies), milk (35), fruits and vegetables (30 including the processing of potatoes), production of food concentrates (28), fresh bread (27) and feedstuffs (26). KEY WORDS: food industry, small and medium-sized food enterprises, ranking of the most dynamic companies
  • 12 The Consequences of the Abolition of Milk Quotas. Polish Dairy Industry – Piotr Szajner
    • Abolition of milk quotas will have a positive impact on milk output and processing in Poland. The liberalisation of the market will lead to an increase in milk production and collection. The increase in the volume of milk processing will contribute to improvement in the utilisation of processing capacity in the dairy industry. Milk quotas had a little influence on the purchase prices, which largely were dependent upon the market situation. The changes in dairy market regulations will have a positive effect on the market situation because it would reduce the influence of certain competition forces.
      KEY WORDS: dairy sector, milk quotas, efficiency, demand, supply


  • 16 Application of Bacteriophages in Food Protection. Part 2 – Dorota Starostka, Agnieszka Olejnik-Schmidt, Marcin Schmidt
    • Bacteriophages have been approved for the application in food protection. Many scientific studies confirm their efficacy with respect to pathogenic bacteria that infect food products. In this paper, the possibility of using bacteriophages in ensuring the microbiological purity of food of plant and animal origin is discussed. There were described the examples of plant protection, animal therapy, bio-sanitation, bio-control and preservation of foods, using bacteriophage preparations.
      KEY WORDS: bacteriophages, food safety, pathogens
  • 20 Starter Cultures for the Meat Industry. Review of Polish and Foreign Market – Mariusz S. Kubiak, Łukasz Łamejko, Ewa Czerwińska, Magdalena Polak-Śliwińska
    • Owing to their properties, bacterial cultures with the addition of lactic acid have been widely employed in food production. Their application has been mainly caused by their capacity to generate of lactic acid from sugars, and hence, to acidify the product. Producers of food additives offer also special mixed cultures to ensure good conditions for the specific process, owing to which many new raw-ripening meat products have been developed. The majority of starter cultures used in meat industry are based on lactic acid bacteria. These are mixtures of one or several strains, having the capability to acidify, protect and create defined organoleptic properties. However, many companies enrich their products by the offer of probiotic strains or strains capable to reduce cholesterol content. The purpose of this work is to perform a review of available literature in the terms of assessment of the various aspects of the utilization of starter cultures as functional additives by the meat industry, including the resulting benefits and risks.
      KEY WORDS: starter cultures, fermentation, meat industry, raw sausages, raw cold- -cooked meat products, lactic acid bacteria
  • 26 Quality and Innovation in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems – Piotr F. Borowski, Wojciech Zalewski
    • The article discusses issues related to the innovative solutions used in aquaculture. Implementation of the recirculation system allows increasing fish production and growth of the quality while reducing water consumption. The innovative RAS system permits to increase financial results, at the same time, reducing water consumption and exerting a positive impact on the environment.
      KEY WORDS: innovations, aquaculture, quality
  • 28 Edible Food Packaging – Legal Aspects – Justyna Kadzińska, Sabina Galus
    • The term of edible packaging refers to a thin layer of material which is applied on the surface of food products or inside. It can be eaten with the product or dissolved, for instance, during heat treatment. It seems that edible packaging based on natural polymers is such an innovative product that it may be an alternative to plastic packaging. Unfortunately, there are many challenges faced by packaging producers due to the fact that there was no edible film or coating combining their advantages and eliminating their disadvantages at the same time produced. Although edible packaging is very popular among not only scientists but also food producers, there is no legislation only related to that kind of packaging. Therefore, an attempt at classifying edible packaging in accordance of prevailing law was undertaken.
      KEY WORDS: edible packaging, active packaging, biodegradability, food


  • 31 Own Brand and its Role in FMCG Network Communication – Magdalena Nowak
    • The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the main role in building a positive and desired private brand image is played by price positioning and communication of non-price attributes of the image. The challenge for the author is to demonstrate that the essential part of communication PL, apart the product’s price, is product’s quality and other emotional arguments to encourage the purchase and rising from the market needs and current consumer’s lifestyle. The article presents current strategy of private brands’ price positioning and compares the slogans used in the communication of private labels in recent years, showing the changes in communicated attributes. The article was developed based on the available literature review and own observation.
      KEY WORDS: own brand; private brand’s positioning; private brand’s communication; advertising slogans in FMCG retailers PL communication


  • 36 Unfair Trading Practices in FMCG Supply Chains. The Reality and Postulates – Urszula Kłosiewicz-Górecka
    • An aim of the article is to present the measures for regulating the relationships between suppliers of FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) and retailing chains, undertaken on the forum of the European Union and in individual countries as well as their importance for producers and trade in Poland. Unfair trading practices (UTP) occurring at all stages of the supply chain of the B2B type have become such a crucial problem that there is proposed its resolution at the level of the European Union, even by way of introduction of a single, restrictive legal act. An alternative is development in individual countries of a compromise among the participant of the FMCG supply chain through a common adoption of the good practice and withholding improper market practices. The article is worked out on the basis of available materials concerning the issues of unfair trading practices in supply chains, prepared on the EU level as well as findings of research and analyses of various scientific and research centres in Poland.
      KEY WORDS: relationships between suppliers and chains, unfair trading practices, supply chain. JEL codes: L81
  • 40 Implementation of Electronic Documents. Best Practices – Anna Kosmacz-Chodorowska
    • For manufacturers and distributors of food products who want to meet the requirements of trade market and regulations, e-business tools should be used in comprehensive range. The first tool includes bar codes, that are in common use in the food industry, being increasingly employed on the market. The second tool, rarely used by companies is a standard of electronic messages (EDI – Electronic Data Interchange) which allows replacing the traditional exchange of documents between suppliers and recipients to the electronic one. The most preferred practice in this area is to follow the model of the experienced companies and go by the developed guidelines.
      KEY WORDS: EDI best practices, EDI rules of implementation, EDI issue, examples of EDI solutions, ECR Working Group, global standards, barcodes, EDI, food industry


  • 43 Business Information