Contents 3/2013

Okładka 3/2013 Przemysłu Spożywczego


  • 2 Food Security in the World – Contemporary Problems – Mariola Kwasek
    • The main threats to global food security include the increase of the world population to over 9 billion by 2050 and the increase global demand for food, especially for food products of animal origin, at the diminishing water and land resources. Adverse impact on global food security will be also exerted by climate change, disappearance of the diversity of agriculture varieties, new plant and animal diseases, rising energy and food prices, food losses and waste, as well as the struggle for cultivated land with the producers of biofuels, industry and urbanization and speculations on the food markets. In the face of numerous threats to food security, the European Union as the largest economy in the world can play an important role in ensuring global food security in the world of limited water and land resources.
      KEY WORDS: food security, threats, demand for food


  • 8 X-Ray Detector. Plan Implementing with the Success! – Małgorzata Galczak


  • 12 Modern Microbiological Laboratory in Food Plants – Agnieszka Nowak
    • Microbiological analysis of food is an integrated part of management of microbial safety in the food chain. Food business operators employ microbiological tests for monitoring of the actual situation and trend analysis in order to detect emerging risks. The paper describes organization and equipment of a small microbiological laboratory. The equipment used in monitoring of food factory environmental hygiene and allowing modifying standard methods was also considered.
      KEY WORDS: microbiological laboratory, organization, equipment
  • 17 Weighing Products with a High Unit Weight – Piotr Wyżykowski
  • 18 Colilert System – Progress in the Analysis of Water Quality – Anna Otlewska, Katarzyna Dybka, Dorota Kręgiel
    • Alternative methods employed in microbiological analysis of water quality, based on defined substrate technology, are the excellent supplementation of reference methods, providing essential information in a short time and enabling action in critical situations. This paper describes the Colilert-18/Quanti-Tray 2000 system, being commercial application of defined substrate technology, which ensures simultaneous detection of total coliforms and E. coli directly in the water samples. Substrates ONPG and MUG included in the media are metabolized by enzymes of coliforms (β-galactosiadase) and/or E. coli (β-glucuronidase) present in the sample, resulting in the release of a yellow or fluorescent product, respectively The high specificity of the enzymes used in this system has eliminated the need for confirmatory testing.
      KEY WORDS: Colilert, Defined Substrate Technology, coliforms, E. coli
  • 25 Bacterial Biofilms – Formation, Characteristics and Eradication – Waldemar Dzwolak
    • Biofilms, which are formed on working surfaces during food manufacturing and contain pathogenic bacteria as well as microorganisms causing food spoilage, constitute a significant source of microbial contaminations reducing food quality and food safety. In the article, a mechanism of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces is described, taking into account characteristics of the biofilms and factors determining a rate of their formation. Furthermore, the paper includes characteristic of measures preventing biofilms’ formation as well as description of physical, chemical, biological and combined methods used in destruction and eradication of biofilms.
      KEY WORDS: biofilms, biofilms characteristics, biofilms formation, biofilms’ eradication
  • 30 Design of Thermal Processes for Acid and Acidified Food. Part. I – Richard Podolak, Piotr Kołakowski
    • In this paper, definitions of the terms and applicable regulations for acid and acidified shelf-stable products such as juices, sauces, jams, jellies, etc. have been discussed. It also includes the characteristics of heat resistance of typical microorganisms of public health significance and spoilage bacteria for this category of foods. Heat resistance data (D and z values) for the most heat-resistant microorganisms which may occur in acid foods are reviewed and discussed. Some of the target microorganisms of the highest heat resistance are proposed for the indicators of the effectiveness of the chosen model of heat treatment process.
      KEY WORDS: acid food, acidified food, pathogenic and spoilage-causing microorganisms
  • 34 Cleaning of Plate Heat Exchangers – Joanna Piepiórka-Stepuk
    • The paper presents a commonly used cleaning technique of plate heat exchangers, progress going in this respect and the problems associated with keeping them in purity. A special attention was paid to the heat exchangers operating as milk pasteurizers. The stages involved in removal of whey protein deposits from the surface were discussed and cleaning curve was presented.
      KEY WORDS: hygiene, cleaning in CIP system, plate heat exchanger


  • 37 New Directions of Fruit and Vegetables Packaging – Natalia Czaja-Jagielska
    • Fruit and vegetables require continuous control during all logistic processes, as their life processes are continued after harvesting. Respiration and transpiration processes are inevitable but they can be slowed down so that their shell-life can be prolonged. Modern packaging plays an important role in product protection as the packages perform a number of additional functions. Biodegradable materials and active and intelligent packaging are the examples of innovative packaging in fruit and vegetable industry.
      KEYWORDS: biodegradable films, active packaging, intelligent packaging


  • 41 Provoked by the Acts – Henryk Piekut
  • 42 „Fruit Logistica 2013” Trade Fair in Berlin – Ludmiła Filina-Dawidowicz
  • 43 Business Information