Contents 3/2012


  • 2 Traditional Meat Products of High Quality. Easter Table of the Poles – Tomasz Krzywiński, Grzegorz Tokarczyk
    • Easter and Christmas holidays are the most important feasts in the Catholic Church. Both are spent with the family. The lavishly laid table includes mainly meat products, in particular hams, loins, sausages and pâtés. We may find also white sausage, rarely consumed in other periods of the year. The raw material used to produce such cured meat should be of the highest quality. Taking this into account, the consumers are looking for the cured meat produced according to traditional recipes.
      KEY WORDS: Easter, traditional meat products, hams, sausages


  •  Meat and Meat Products – the New Requirements for Labeling – Wioletta Bogusz-Kaliś
    • In the paper, the author presents the new food law concerning labeling food, with particular regard to the meat and its products. Changes in requirements concerning the labels result from the Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers (…). The most important change includes the obligation to include information on the nutritional value of the most products. This requirement will also concern meat products. Listed regulation introduces an obligation to include new wording next to the product name and indication of the country or place of origin, clarifies way of the presence of the allergens. In the article, there were also mentioned the new provisions concerning the list of additives and marking the production batch code. There have been presented the requirements as to the non-pre-packed food labelling and the work on revising the national law concerning the labelling of foodstuffs.
      KEY WORDS: labeling, new food law, meat, meat products


  • 12 Polish Meat Industry – the State and the Problems – Roman Urban
    • The production and the domestic demand on the meat for a few years have been quite stable, but their structure is changing. Production and export of poultry meat, more slowly of beef, is quickly developing but production of the pork is found in a deep crisis. High import of the pork and its processing results in the loss of the self-sufficiency of the sector. In the production of pork, high prices of fodders and a still fragmented structure of the pig producers, blocking the effectiveness of the progress in their management are the reasons for the crisis. Higher and higher prices paid to the producers of the livestock have caused lowering of the profitability of processing and the level of investing; they may also limit the domestic demand and the competitiveness of our producers on the world markets.
      KEY WORDS: meat sector, domestic demand, foreign trade,
      effectiveness of the production, crisis of the breeding of pigs
  • 18 The Cheese and Curd Market in Poland – Piotr Szajner
    • Cheeses in Poland are a very dynamic and important segment of the domestic dairy industry, what is confirmed by growing production, domestic demand and foreign trade flow. The cheeses are presently occupying the main position in the structure of domestic sales and exports contributing to the improvement of the balance of foreign trade in dairy products. In the long run cheese consumption in Poland increases, but it is still found much below the level reported in Germany. The main problem of Polish cheese industry is a lack of cheese types that would be considered by foreign customers as being produced in certain specified regions of Poland. This leads to certain problems connected with marketing as well as it makes difficult achieving high export prices.
      KEY WORDS: cheese, ripening cheese, curd (fresh white cheese), consumption, production, foreign trade
  • 26 The Ranking of the Brand Value – Hanna Górska-Warsewicz


  • 31 Water Activity of Dairy Products. Part I – Michał A. Olkowski, Antoni Pluta, Anna Berthold-Pluta, Jolanta Wiska
    • This work presents a literature review pertinent to the effects of water activity (aw) on the course of biological processes, as well as chemical and physical changes in the selected dairy products. In the first part of this manuscript the fundamentals and definitions of the water activity as well as dairy products were discussed and characterized as well as classified in terms of value for the mentioned parameter. A special attention was paid to several key aspects of practical importance for dairy product quality and hygiene. The topics elaborated in detail include the effects of aw on: micro-organisms’ heat-resistance, lipid oxidation reactions and non-enzymatic browning in milk powder. There was also characterized the glass transition process, which resulted in the acceleration of amorphous lactose crystallization, as well as the effect of this change on the deterioration of milk powder quality.
      KEY WORDS: whey proteins, functional properties, application, food industry
  • 35 Whey Proteins – Functional Properties and Application – Anna Brodziak, Jolanta Król, Zygmunt Litwińczuk
    • In this article, the characteristics of functional properties of whey proteins, i.e. all properties, except the nutritional ones, which have an impact on their application, is presented. The water holding properties, including forming a gel, and surface activity (foaming and emulsifying) are reported. They enable more efficient use of whey proteins on a large scale, especially in food production and human nutrition. Most often these proteins are components of dairy and meat products, confectionery, snacks, breads, soups, mayonnaise, dips and sauces, and even soft drinks or edible coatings. They are also widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
      KEY WORDS: whey proteins, functional properties, application, food industry
  • 38 CRISPR/Cas – a Natural Bacteriophage Defense system in LAB – Michał Plech, Piotr Kołakowski
    • CRISPR/Cas is a natural and widely occurring bacteriophage defense system in bacteria. It was recognized in 2007 in Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). The article describes the structure of CRISPR/Cas defense system and mechanism of decomposition of the injected phage DNA into the bacterial cell. The phenomenon which prevents the multiplication and release of successive phage generations into the environment is explained in details. The article presents also an application of CRISPR/Cas system for construction of new variant of LAB strains with differentiated resistance to phage infections. Controlled modification of phage resistance of LAB strains with CRISPR/Cas method for food industry is not considered as a genetic modification method within the meaning of the existing rules in this area.
      KEY WORDS: CRISPR/Cas, bacteriophages, lactic acid bacteria, fermented dairy products


  • 42 Quality of Frankfurters Offered for Retail Sales – Krystyna Palka, Ewelina Węgierska, Agata Niwecka
    • The objective of this study was to compare some selected quality attributes of 3 frankfurters (X, Y, and Z) manufactured by Polish producers. The frankfurters X and Y were characterized by a similar chemical composition. In frankfurters Z, the lowest water and the highest fat contents as well as considerably lower saccharides’ content were found. The values of TPA parameters: hardness and chewingness were the highest in sausages Z, and the lowest in sausages X, whereas the resilience values of products Y were lower than X and Z. The values of shear force of frankfurters X and Y were almost two times lower in comparison with Z. The sensory quality of sausages was very good (X and Y), and good (Z). The product Z obtained lower notes for the intensity and desirability of smell and taste. All the sausages, as being assessed in relation to sensory qualities after heating to internal temperature 60oC, obtained higher notes in comparison with the notes at 20 oC.
      KEY WORDS: frankfurters, chemical composition, sensory quality, texture


  • 45 Modern Minidairy at University of Warmia and Mazury
  • 46 Conferences – Business Information