Contents 3/2007

okładka Przemysł Spożywczy 3/2007


  • 2 Polish Meat Sector after Accession to European Union – Robert Mroczek, Roman Urban
    • Accession to the European Union has a significant influence on meat sector in Poland. Among the most important changes are the increased number of meat processing companies, which are authorised to trade on Common Market and rapid development of meat export. Together with industrialisation of slaughter and processing of animals, financial condition of meat companies have improved. There was no evidence of widespread bankruptcy of meat companies.
      Key words: meat sector, meat processing, export of meat
  • 8 Competitiveness of Polish Animal-Food Sector – Iwona Szczepaniak, Monika Szczególska
    • The assessment of competitiveness of Polish animal-food sector after the accession confirms reasonable scope of preparations to operate on the common market. It was mirrored in growing exports, particularly to other member countries, and strengthening position of Polish producers in the enlarged EU. The accession of Poland in the EU structures did not result in an excessive inflow of imported from the EU products. A very strong export’s orientation is indicated in husbandry branches of such animals as: cattle, calf, sheep, as so in such food industry branches as: meet production (red and poultry) and milk processing.
      Key words: competitiveness, cost predominances
  • 12 Polish Foreign Trade of Beef, Pork, and Poultry – Danuta Rycombel
    • Due to easier access to the EU market and higher transaction prices obtained there, than on third country markets, the revenue on exports of pork, beef and poultry after the accession rapidly increased. There were also changes in the structure of exports. Regarding beef the share of half carcasses frozen declined in favour of raw meat. In the case of poultry the share of high-quality chicken and turkey parts increased. At the same time there was a bulk increase in imports (mainly pork). However the imports were growing at lower rate then the exports.
      Key words: meat, export, import
  • 16 Foreign Trade of Dairy Products – Piotr Szajner
    • Although an upward tendency in 2006 was hampered dairy exports still remain at the level 2,5 times higher than before the accession to EU. Main obstacle for the growth of dairy exports is the milk quota system limiting further increase in milk procurement and processing. Unfavourable for Polish exporters exchange rate was another factor hampering exports. On the other hand there were positive changes in the structure of dairy exports. At the same time dairy import kept growing as well, however their market share is so far insignificant. Polish foreign trade in dairy products becomes more linked with the EU market.
      Key words: dairy products, export, import


  • 22 Rapid Measuring the Water Content by Microwave Resonators – Mirosław Bohdan
    • The article describes the method for rapid measuring of water content in various products using microwave resonance technology, which takes advantage of the polarity of water molecules. The method measures changes in energy levels of microwaves, which pass through the water-containing product. The amount of water content is measured instantly and the precision of the measurement is comparable to current laboratory methods and is not affected by the color of the sample or by its structure or surface quality. The measurements can be taken in a laboratory or industrial conditions and, if appropriate planar sensors are used, the water content can be measured continuously on the manufacturing line.
      Key words: measuring the water content, microwawe resonanse


  • 30 Some Problems of the Presence and Importance of the Enterobacteriaceae in Food Products – Irena Molska
    • The article presents the importance of the Enterobacteriaceae family as the important group considered as the hygienic criterion in food production. The general characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae as well as their sources in food products and negative effects on the quality of those products are presented. The increasing importance of pathogenic species Yersinia enterocolitica and Enterobacter sakazakii is mentioned.
      Key words: production hygiene, Enterobacteriaceae
  • 36 Practical Aspects of Hygienization in Dairy Enterprises – Katarzyna Godlewska
    • Properly prepared surfaces contacting with raw materials, semifinished products and completed articles – by cleaning them from technological and microbiological contamination – are one of the important determinants of safe food production. Efficiency of hygienization depends on diary organization (technological specificity, employees engagement), products (and their dusting), used chemicals, automatization, supervision, management, attitude towards hygienization and verifications.
      Key words: hygiene, washing, disinfection


  • 39 Civil liability for Damage Caused by a Hazardous Foodstuff – Łukasz Bobeł, Katarzyna Leśkiewicz
    • The aim of the article is to answer the following questions: who, to what extent and under what circumstances bear liability for damage caused by hazardous foodstuffs. With regard to the rules of liability the Act on safety of foodstuffs and nutrition refers to the provisions of the Civil Code on liability for damage caused by hazardous products.
      Key words: hazardous, foodstuff, liability for foodstuffs and product, civil liability, food safety


  • 44 Fermented Milk Products and Cholesterol Level – Małgorzata Ziarno, Anna Zając
    • Cholesterol in the human organism is necessary for the correct run of life processes. It is used to build up all cell and endocellular membranes. However, its excess in the organism can cause serious health troubles. Hence numerous attempts over the decreasing of the cholesterol level in human blood serum are undertaken. Numerous in vitro investigations show that lactic acid bacteria both traditionally applied in the dairy technology and those of the intestinal origin possess the ability of reducing the cholesterol level in model laboratory media. As one of principal mechanisms according to which this can occur is the binding of cholesterol to cell walls or/and the simultaneous incorporation of it into membranes of cytoplasm of the cells.
      Key words: cholesterol, binding of cholesterol, fermented milk products