Contents 3/2019; tome 3/2019

ECONOMY

  • 2 Conditions and Trends in Domestic Demand for Food During 2017-2018 – Krystyna Świetlik
    • The decline in the rate of growth of real income of the population and the real increase in prices of food in 2017 had an impact on the consumption.  The aim of this paper it to illustrate changes in the level and structure of demand for food in 2017 against a background of macro-  and micro-economic factors and to indicate direction of changes in 2018.  Data from GUS (Central Statistical Office) on national accounts, retail sales, food prices and the results of research into household budgets were used to achieve this aim.  The analysis showed that in 2017 the rate of growth of food consumption in the household sector was slower than in the previous two years.  The reduction in volume of consumed food products was accompanied by actual changes in its structure based on the growth of the share of more processed products in the basket of purchased goods.  The growth in demand for catering services continued.   In agricultural households there was a significant reduction in self-reliance on food, which was related to a positive increase in purchase prices for agricultural producers.  It is estimated that in 2018 the growth of domestic demand for food was similar to that in 2017.
      KEY WORDS: determinants of demand, food, consumption, structure, households

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 10 Health Hazard Associated with the Presence of Clostridium Bacteria in Foods – Katarzyna Leja, Kamila Szudera-Kończal, Katarzyna Czaczyk
    • Clostridium bacteria were already known to Hippocrates many years before Christ. The name of the Clostridium species is owed to the Polish microbiologist, Adam Prazmowski. It is now known that these bacteria are wides- pread in the natural environment, and their presence in food products is a threat to human health and life. The increase in consumer health awareness has increased interest in consuming products with minimal processing in recent years, which has led to the need to develop new techniques to ensure the safety of microbiological food, including elimination of bacteria from Clostridium genera. On the other hand, the high biochemical activity of Clostridium bacteria allows them to be used in the chemical, pharmaceutical and medical industries.
      KEY WORDS: food safety, Clostridium spp., C. botulinum, food pathogen

LAW

  • 17 Regulatory Requirements Concerning Clean Label Claims – Marta Zawadka
    • The „clean label” trend is reflected in the labelling of many foodstuffs. Consumers pay attention to the natural character of food, minimal processing, simple composition, etc. Manufacturers meet consumer expectations and produce such products and mark them appropriately. When formulating such statements, compliance with applicable labeling regulations should be respected. The article discusses the legal requirements that need to be met to develop correct commercial communications on clean label products. First, the definition of „clean label” and factors that have contributed to this trend are explained. It was also indicated which legal acts and supporting documents should be taken into account in order to properly inform consumers about the effects of „cleaning the label”. Furthermore, specific conditions for the use of selected categories of „clean label” declarations regarding: product composition, environmental aspects and the „natural” and „traditional” character of food were also discussed.
      KEY WORDS: clean label, labelling, Regulation 1169/2011
  • 22 Between national and global initiatives – on the example of food labeling – Aleksandra Wesołowska

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 24 Acid Whey Management – Justyna Tarapata, Krzysztof Tomalik, Adriana Łobacz, Justyna Żulewska
    • The article presents the possibilities of acid whey management. High content of minerals and lactic acid limits its utilization.  The most common direction  of acid whey processing is  protein recovery in membrane separation processes. The use of nanofiltration prior to the spray-drying process allows to optimize the production of acid whey powder and solves the problem associated with the high stickiness of the powder. The use of acid whey for the production of infant formulas is possible due to the significant demineraliza- tion of whey achieved by  electrodialysis as an interme- diate processing step before  spray drying. The predicted increase in the production of acid whey in Poland but also worldwide creates necessity to explore new directions for its management and optimization  of existing processes.
      KEY WORDS: acid whey, whey management, whey powder, membrane processes
  • 30 Preservation of high-quality juices using high pressures – Jakub Bone, Grzegorz Widłak, Łukasz Wachowicz
    • High-pressure food processing (HPP) is a modern method of food preservation. The use of high hydrostatic pressure allows extending the shelf life of food products while maintaining their nutritional value and sensory characteristics. The purpose of the work was to provide information on the use of HPP technology in the fruit and vegetable industry, mainly on the example of non-thermally stable juices. The article presents the effect of high-pressure treatment on the quality of freshly squeezed apple and orange juices. The juices were subjected to the process in high-pressure vessels developed by EXDIN Solutions. The total number of microorganisms and the number of yeasts and molds were determined in juices. The content of vitamin C was tested in orange juice. The determination of the total number of polyphenols was carried out in apple juice. It has been observed that the HPP treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the level of microorganisms. An increase in reduction was found with increasing pressure. In addition, the content of vitamin C and polyphenols in juices was practically unchanged in relation to the content of these compounds in raw juices. These results inform that high-pressure processing have positive influence on the final quality of fresh juices.
      KEY WORDS: high-pressure processing HPP, juices, vitamin C, polyphenols
  • 36 Characteristics of Selected Natural Methods of Preservation of Meat and Meat Preparations – Krzysztof Dasiewicz
    • Increasing consumers convictions of the health of certain synthetic preservatives require studies to assess the effectiveness of natural methods of prolonging the shelf life of meat and meat products. Among the natural methods of preserving meat, three broad areas can be identified which are currently the most frequently used: methods based on temperature control, in particular low tempera ture control methods, the use of natural spices in the form of drought, essential oils or extracts, and the use of bioprotection as a natural control of shelf life and the safety of meat products.
      KEY WORDS: fresh meat, meat products, preservation, refrigeration, preservation technologies, natural bioprotection
  • 43 Supplier’s Assessment Methods for Analysis Conducted Among Meat Indutry Suppliers – Katarzyna Jakubowska-Gawlik, Joanna Trafiałek
    • The article introduces a supplier’s assessment subject. The aim of the study was to identify the methods of supplier’s assessment among meat industry suppliers. The in- vestigated group was 115 plants meat producers’ suppliers of raw materials and packaging dedicated to food contact: food additives, films, natural and artificial casings. Based on researches it can admit that the supplier’s assessment has been carried out once a year. The most frequently method chosen by producers was an audit performed at a supplier’s plant, although some companies declared that they usually use a combination of two or three methods for one supplier, for instance, supplier’s audit and complaint analysis or raw materials quality approval list. Supplier’s approval process includes compliance with the food law requirements and selected elements of quality management systems and/or food safety management systems. The internal or certification audit conducted during the last year and following procedures to prevent chemical and physical products contamination can be an example.
      KEY WORDS: suppliers, food, quality, evaluation

LOGISTIC-PACKAGING

  • 46 Food Packages – Requirements, Controversy and Trends – Iwona Szymańska, Anna Żbikowska, Katarzyna Marciniak-Łukasiak
    • Today’s packaging, besides the passive protective function, can perform a number of additional functions. Currently, two trends leading to new solutions within the protectionary- informative function (intelligent and active packaging) and organic packaging are observed. Intelligent packaging, in addition to food protection, enables monitoring its and environment conditions, and active packaging improves its quality and durability. The packaging market is dominated by plastics polymers (causing, among others, excessive environmental load), which are also the most criticized type of packaging. An alternative to plastics can be organic-inorganic hybrid materials with unique features. In contrast, popular packaging (eg coatings) and edible dishes (eg from wheat bran) additionally enrich the product with valuable nutrients (eg vitamins, fiber) and do not harmful to the natural environment. The aim of the study was to present the current trends regarding packaging intended for contact with food.
      KEY WORDS: safety, plastics, biodegradability, edible packages

EVENTS

  • 9 Quality System Certified Product (CP)
  • 15 Technology that limits faulty packaging
  • 16 POLAGRA 2019 – a comprehensive event for the food industry
  • 35 Plastic waste and recycling in the EU: facts and figures