Contents 2/2018; tome 72


  • 4 Contaminants in Food – Review and Discussion of Recent Legal Developments and the Work of the EC and EFSA – Iwona Kowalczyk-Andrzejewska, Grażyna Osęka, Marta Zawadka
    • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is continuously updating and supplementing the scientific safety assessment related to contaminants in food. On this basis, legal acts aimed at ensuring food safety and protecting consumers’ health are developed and adopted by the EU decision-making bodies and representatives of the Member States’ authorities. The article presents the current work of the EFSA, the European Commission and Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed, as well as the recent developments in the EU law in respect of food contaminants. Four groups of contaminants are discussed: process, microbiological, chemical contaminants and toxins of plant origin and produced by fungi.
      KEY WORDS: process contaminants, plant toxins, mycotoxins, alkaloids
  • 10 Mediation Between Entrepreneurs from the Food Industry – Iwona Wrześniewska-Wal
    • A conciliatory resolution of various disputes or conflicts involving an impartial, neutral and professional „mediator” – a mediator – is the very essence of mediation. The mediation procedure was introduced into civil procedure more than 10 years ago. They have a very wide scope and cover all civil disputes, including economic disputes. Mediation can be used as part of the proceedings before and outside the court.
      KEY WORDS: business mediation, entrepreneurs, food industry


  • 14 Domestic Fish Market – Conditions, Trends, Issues and Outlook – Krzysztof Hryszko (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.2.1)
    • In 2016 the domestic fish market was driven mainly by high world prices of numerous fish species, including record prices of salmon. High prices led to deterioration in economic condition and financial standing of fish-processing industry; however, the position of the branch was still safe. A decline in profitability overlapped with rising sales value on the domestic markets and the sales value in direct exports. In 2016 the dynamics of fish and sea food prices was the highest one among food products. In spite of that considerable improvement in consumers’ incomes allowed for a rise in their consumption. Unfavourable situation as regards cost-price conditions in Poland was continued in the first half of 2017. The growth in the prices of imported fish and sea food was hampered barely in the third quarter of 2017. Therefore, in the whole 2017 a decline in the profitability of fish processing is expected. Nevertheless, the continuous processes of consolidation along with further investments (including foreign capital) create good outlook for the branch.
      KEY WORDS: fishery, fish processing, foreign trade, fish consumption, fish prices


  • 20 The Methods for Detection of Biofilm in the Production Lines – Sylwia Mierzejewska, Joanna Piepiórka-Stepuk, Mariusz Wlazło (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.2.2)
    • The surface cleanliness in plants producing the food is fundamental for production of safe and the highest quality food. The microorganisms are developing on equipments surfaces, especially these microorganisms which can create biofilm, are generating a lot of problems with cleanliness keeping of production lines. The article presents methods of biofilm detection on open and closed surfaces of food production installations.
      KEY WORDS: biofilm, hygiene, evaluation methods
  • 24 Sampling and Preparation of Food Samples. Microbiological Examination – Agnieszka Nowak (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.2.3)
    • The stage of sampling and preparation of samples for food examination has a significant impact on the quality of microbiological analysis. The paper discusses issues relating to the choice of sampling method depending on the type of food matrix and specifying the sampling plan. Documents describing the laboratory and analytical sample were also presented.
      KEY WORDS: sample, sampling plan, sampling, food
  • 30 Acrylamide in Food Products – Characteristics and Limitation Methods – Anna Żbikowska, Małgorzata Kowalska, Katarzyna Żbikowska, Katarzyna Marciniak-Łukasiak (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.2.4)
    • Acrylamide (AA) is a synthetic chemical compound commonly used in many branches of industry. It is mainly used in plastics, paints, varnishes, adhesives and mortars production and is also applied in the cellulose-paper and cosmetic industries. The interest in AA increased in 2002, when Swedish scientists reported the formation of this substance in some food products. Acrylamide is created during the heat treatment of foodstuffs, where amino acids react with carbonyl group of reducing sugars during baking and frying, leading to the browning of foods. Acrylamide, a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, French fries, bread, cookies, biscuits, and coffee. The Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158 of 20 November 2017 has been recently published, establishing mitigation measures and reference levels to reduce the presence of acrylamide in food.
      KEY WORDS: acrylamide, physicochemical properties, toxicity, EU recommendations


  • 36 Consumption of Fermented Products. Women’s Surveys – Małgorzata Drywień, Jadwiga Hamułka, Magdalena Górnicka, Agata Wawrzyniak, Joanna Frąckiewicz, Agnieszka Woźniak, Anna Ciecierska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.2.5)
    • The aim of the study was to investigate determinants of the structure, size and frequency of consumption of fermented animal and plant origin products in the group of women. The survey included 610 women aged 19-90 years. It was established that the average daily intake of the fermented products was found on the level of 350-400 g. Yoghurt/kefir natural (approx. 34%) and flavoured (approx. 25%) were the most consumed products. Women age and BMI were negatively correlated with the frequency of consumption of most fermented products of animal origin, and only in the case of pickled cucumbers and sauerkraut this correlation was positive. Education and place of residence influenced the frequency of consumption of cured meats and olives. Socio-demographic factors differently determined the frequency of consumption of the products surveyed, depending on their type.   It seems reasonable to disseminate information that the fermented vegetables and meats are a source of health beneficial microorganisms, as well as the dairy products.
      KEY WORDS: fermented products, consumption, women


  • 40 Plastic Packaging Obtained from Recycling – Marzena Pawlicka, Małgorzata Mazańska, Jacek Postupolski (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.2.6)
    • Mechanical recycling of packaging wastes allows the recovery of plastics and their re-use in food packaging. However, to ensure that they have appropriate quality, the recycling processes for the production of food contact materials must ensure high removal efficiency in challenge tests. The use of products intended for contact with food containing recycled plastics obtained as a result of mechanical treatment is regulated by the Commission Regulation (EC) no 282/2008 on recycled plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. According to this legal regulation, the recycling process that results in plastics for contact with food must be assessed by EFSA and then obtained the European Commission authorization.
      KEY WORDS: food contact materials, food packaging, recycling plastics, mechanical recycling


  • 43 Summary of the Busy 2017! – Bronisław Wesołowski
  • 44 Food Prices in 2018