Contents 2/2017; tome 71

Przemysł Spożywczy 2/2017ECONOMY

  • 2 Food Enterprises on the Ranking List 2000 – Jadwiga Drożdż (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.2.1)
    • The manufacturers of food, beverages and tobacco constituted more than 10% of the entities included on the List of 2000 Polish Enterprises and Exporters. Their share of the income of all listed companies amounted to 7.5% and was 1.1 percentage points higher than in the previous edition of the mentioned List. Among the listed food companies there were the representatives of all sectors (branches), often its leaders. The economic and financial situation of most food companies listed on the List of 2000 was good, since their financial result was positive, and the financial status safe, with the exception of 16 companies. The achieved return on equity was high; it exceeded the interest rates on deposits and treasury bonds as safe sources of investment. In approximately 2/3 of the listed food companies the revenue increased, and the decrease in turnover had a universal character only in the dairy and sugar sector.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, economic and financial performance
  • 10 Authenticity and Control of the Juice Market in Poland – Witold Płocharski, Jarosław Markowski, Barbara Groele(DOI:10.15199/65.2017.2.2)
    •  The paper contains a general definition of authenticity and provides interpretation of falsification in relation to foodstuff. The attention is paid to the main causes of counterfeiting of products, also in reference to market conditions. Drastic examples of fraud concerning the quality of the fruit juice, taking place in the period prior to the entry of Poland into the EU, are given; the situation after accession, when Poland could be a model for the majority of other countries, is discussed. Also, the examples of procedures and of the analytical methods used in the evaluation of the quality of products in order to combat unfair competition and ensure the effectiveness of control are given. The authors mention the role that can be played by producer organization, in cooperation with the government entities. The conclusion is that the problem of counterfeiting of food products will disappear only when a producer would lose more on counterfeiting than gaining in honest competition.
      KEY WORDS: falsification, conditions, market control, control methods


  • 18 Coagulase-positive Staphylococci in Food. Current Microbiological Hazard – Elżbieta Maćkiw, Łukasz Mąka, Monika Stasiak, Joanna Długokęcka (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.2.3)
    •  Staphylococci are ubiquitous in nature. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a Gram-positive coccal bacterium belonging to the Staphylococci genus. Staphylococci are of potential hazard in food poisoning as they produce coagulase, heat stable nuclease or enterotoxins. S. aureus is an important pathogen of humans. Staphylococcal food-poisoning is caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins produced during massive growth of S. aureus in food. Staphylococci are a common contaminant of milk and milk products, poultry and red meat, cakes and salads. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States and the EU.
      KEY WORDS: coagulase-positive staphylococci, food-borne outbreaks, food
  • 26 Yeast Identification in Foods. Analysis of Ribosomal Regions – Krystyna Kowal (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.2.4)
    •  There are different methods of yeast identification – classical methods and its modifications and modern methods based on polymorphism analysis of genetic material. Identification of yeast using conventional methods is labour-intensive and time-consumi ng. Therefore there is a reason to use molecular biology techniques that allow faster and more precise identification. This article presents molecular biology techniques of yeast identification, including analysis of ribosomal regions (sequencing, restriction analysis).
      KEY WORDS: yeasts, identification, analysis of ribosomal regions (sequencing, restriction analysis)
  • 30 Identification Methods of Probiotics in Food. Challenges and Problems – Dorota Zielińska, Aleksandra Ołdak, Anna Rzepkowska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.2.5)
    •  Probiotic food is food that contains a specified number of viable cells of probiotic bacteria. Probiotic properties are strain-specific and the food is not sterile, hence there is the need for bacteria identification. Determination of genus, species, and further display the strain of bacteria is a difficult process not only to researchers but also to the industry, because of complicated test protocols. The aim of this study is to indicate the methods for identification and enumeration of microorganisms, which would be used in the studies of probiotic food.
      KEY WORDS: probiotics, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, identification, food


  • 36 Nutraceuticals – a Chance for Health of Modern Consumers – Małgorzata Kostecka, Tomasz Czernecki, Paweł Szot(DOI:10.15199/65.2017.2.6)
    •  The word „nutraceuticals” refers to food or a substance isolated from a food product that has scientifically proven health-promoting activity in the field of therapeutic or health preventive effects. Nutraceuticals can be obtained from raw materials of plant, animal or microbial origin. However, in practice they are mainly substances of plant origin – so-called phytochemicals. Nowadays, there is a growth market for nutraceuticals and functional foods, which resembles a traditional food but has proven beneficial effect in the amounts customarily consumed. Probiotics, prebiotics, omega-3 fatty acids and phytochemicals, with particular emphasis on polyphenolic compounds and phytoestrogens, are presented.
      KEY WORDS: nutraceuticals, diseases of civilization, probiotics, prebiotics, phytochemicals
  • 42 Vegetal Spices – their Classification and Culinary Application. Characteristics of Spices – Marek Kardas, Katarzyna Toczyńska, Elżbieta Grochowska-Niedworok (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.2.7)
    •   The article contains the classification of vegetal spices (seasonings), as available on the Polish market due to their origin and their active ingredients, and the classification adopted in gastronomic technology and commodity sciences. The role and composition of the particular mixtures of spices have been also discussed in respect of their diversified application in food industry and gastronomy and their unusual sensory qualities. The culinary applications of the selected spices, with the consideration of their organoleptic characteristics, their colouring and preserving properties have been also described.
      KEY WORDS: spices, classification, culinary uses


  • 46 The Decision Tree – a Tool Supporting the Decision Process. Food Labelling – Urszula Samotyja (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.2.8)
    •  Food labelling is the food business operators’ responsibility. An algorithm was proposed in the form of a decision tree to serve as a tool to assist decision-making process related to the duty of shelf-life labelling. Under the current regulations, when choosing the way of labelling (date of minimum durability and the „use by date”) the criteria of microbiological quality must be taken into account. The paper presents a case for the fact that this is too narrow approach to the problem of ensuring consumer’s safety.
      KEY WORDS: shelf life, food labelling, food safety, decision tree
  • 49 Food Packaging – Documents, Confirmation of Compliance. The EU Rules – Marzena Pawlicka, Małgorzata Mazańska, Renata Barbarska(DOI:10.15199/65.2017.2.9)
    •   The materials and articles intended for contact with food, including food packaging must meet the requirements of existing legislation in the field of safety in contact with food. The article presents the types of documents confirming the compliance of the marketed materials and articles intended to come into contact with food that must accompany them. It discusses the responsibilities of business operators of materials and articles intended for contact with food in relation to the issuing and disposing of the declaration of compliance and supporting documents. It also presents the requirements for labeling and traceability system for materials and articles throughout the whole supply chain.
      KEY WORDS: declaration of compliance, supporting documents, labeling, traceability, certificate