Contents 2/2016; tome 70

Przemysł Spożywczy 2/2016


  • 2 Economic Assessment of Polish Food Industry Innovativeness – Iwona Szczepaniak
    • Among factors of enterprises’ development, the innovation features are particularly important. These factors may decide on development of Polish food industry in the future. To develop successfully and effectively, every enterprise needs innovation, i.e. the new products, new technological processes, new organizational systems and marketing changes. The aim of the paper is to perform economic assessment of innovativeness (product, technology, organisational and marketing) of Polish food industry in the context of its future development. The level of innovation of enterprises of the food industry is assessed on the grounds of analysis of inputs and outputs indicators. Expenditures determine the ability of companies to create innovations, whereas the results allow to assess the effects of innovation activities. The analysis of Polish food industry innovativeness has revealed that it is relatively low. It can be a significant threat to the future development of the sector.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, innovativeness, economic development
  • 7 Changing Food habits of Poles. Guidens for Producers – Dariusz Winek


  • 8 Food Production – Quantity or Quality? Part I – Joanna Barłowska, Mariusz Florek, Zygmunt Litwińczuk
    • Over the recent fifty years, production of food has increased several times, including basic cereals (rice, wheat and corn) four times, in average; that one of milk and beef – twice, of pork and eggs four times, and of poultry – even twelvefold. The rapid increase in production of food throughout the world during the mentioned period was possible due to the use of mineral fertilizers, plant protection products and GM plants in the crop cultivation, as well as achievements in quantitative traits’ genetics, animal feeding and biotechnological reproduction methods in animal breeding. At the same time, a substantial part of food is wasted annually (globally 1.3 billion tons) at every stage in the production chain. Presently, the application of food additives has become an essential and permanent component of the process of food production by conventional methods. Also, the food production costs are reduced by the use of MSM for manufacturing of some assortments of sausages or substitution of natural milk and meat constituents by cheaper plant replacers.
      KEY WORDS: world food production, genetic progress in food production, food wastage, food additives
  • 13 Food Gels – Structure and Properties. Textural, Rheological and Thermal Studies – Magdalena Krystyjan, Wojciech Ciesielski
    • Food gels are, most frequently, the complex systems the properties of which change over the time and under the influence of different factors. To accurately trace the changes that take place in them, it is advisable to use the newest methods of measurement, which are provided by the science. The paper presents the possibilities of the application of textural, rheological and thermal techniques to study the structure and properties of food gels. There have been discussed the following problems: puncture test, TPA and retrograde and concurrent extrusion tests in the texture studies. Dynamics, creeping and return measurements and strain relaxation as rheological methods were characterized. In case of thermal measurements, such problems as thermogravimetry (thermogravimetric analysis), differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were discussed.
      KEY WORDS: gels, texture analysis, rheological measurements, thermal analysis
  • 20 Volatile Amine Compounds as a Raw Meat and Fish Freshness Indicator – Natalia Radomska, Mariusz Tichoniuk, Ryszard Cierpiszewski, Ewa Biazik
    • The maintenance of food safety is one of the most important factors affecting human health. Consumer knowledge about food safety is significantly increasing, which is the subject of great interest of manufacturers. Due to this reason, the need has arisen to develop indicators that would allow real-time assessment of the real state of food products independent of indirect indications of freshness, such as determination of the date of manufacture. Monitoring of food quality is possible owing to the use of indicators that change their coloring as a result of an increase or decrease in pH level. The presence of volatile amine compounds resulting from chemical and microbiological changes in a perishable product can successfully be used as a way to assess the quality of food. Their detection by the indicators would allow rapid assessment of the freshness of fish and red meat.
      KEY WORDS: volatile amines, freshness indicators, fishes, raw meat
  • 25 Ceramic Materials in Food Industry. Planned Changes in the EU Legislation – Marzena Pawlicka, Małgorzata Mazańska, Renata Barbarska
    • The article discusses the application of ceramic materials intended for contact with food as machinery parts and equipment in food industry. Current specific requirements of the European Union for the testing of lead and cadmium migration from ceramic surfaces were presented. There were discussed the planned changes in the legislation of the European Union concerning the updating of the existing limits of the migration for lead and cadmium, extending the requirements for migration limits for other metals, extending the scope of the glassware and glazed surfaces and coated ceramics, being enameled or decorated on other materials e.g. metal alloys. In addition, it is planned to change the method for determination of metal migration from ceramics used to confirm the compliance with the limits, including the consideration of new testing conditions and new food simulator.
      KEY WORDS: ceramic materials, glass, food processing machinery, migration, metals
  • 29 The New Refrigerants and Changes in the Construction of Refrigeration Systems. Part 3 – Rafał Andrzejczyk, Tomasz Muszyński, Blanka Jakubowska
    • The article presents the continuation of issues which have been shown into the first and second parts of work. The authors refer to the consequences of restrictions connected with the use of CFC and HCFC refrigerants. The present paper has been concentrated on the relation between a kind of working fluid and efficiency of refrigerator compartment. Mathematical analysis which has been shown into article included changing of working parameters and different kinds of working fluids. Due to the EU law restrictions, the authors considered only the most perspective refrigerants: those from natural group R290 and R600a, from HFC group R134a and R365 mfc, and from new HFO group R1234yf, R1234ze.
      KEY WORDS: synthetic refrigerants, natural refrigerants, coefficient of refrigerating performance
  • 34 FSSC 22000 Scheme and ISO 22000. Food Safety Management Systems – Krzysztof Bielański


  • 37 Food Ingredients and Psychophysical Activity of Consumer – Tomasz Czernecki, Aneta Brodziak
    • Functioning of the nervous system, including the brain, determines well-being, emotional and intellectual abilities of human. It largely depends on the components supplied in the diet. The publication presents the main food constituents and the selected products that are able to influence the psychophysical activity of the body. Fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals were discussed. Their deficiencies are especially dangerous because they lead to impairment of cognitive functions in the case of young people and in elder ones to mental illness and acceleration of development of neurodegenerative diseases. The psychophysical activity of human is also affected by bioactive substances contained, among others, in Japanese ginkgo, ginseng, nutmeg, hop or Saint John’s wort.
      KEY WORDS: food, psychoactive substances, brain, nervous system
  • 41 Changes in Food Pyramid


  • 42 GLOBAL Challenge 2016 with the Final in Miami
  • 43 One Billion Zlotys for the Development of Polish Companies R & D Centers
  • 43 New Publications