Contents 2/2014

"Przemysł Spożywczy"  2/2014

LAW

  • 2 Frauds and supervision in the chain of food supplies. Crisis in food sector – Wojciech Sawicki
    • One of the basic tasks of the European Commission and the European Parliament is to take care of food safety and consumers’ interests. The events of the recent few years have shown that more and more attention should be paid to the problem of frauds in food sector. The revealed examples such as the application of road salt for cunsumption purposes, sale of common eggs as those ones coming from organic production, utilization of methyl alcohol in spirit drinks, incorrect labeling of fish soecuies or scandal situation concerning horse meat seem to indicate the existence of permanent or structural problem. The frauds of this type affect unfavourably the confidence of the consumers in the chain of food supplies. In respect of supervision organs, that have to take care of food safety, they become more and more often defined as the institutions of a low social confidence.
      KEY WORDS: food law, food safety, food fraud

ECONOMY

  • 5 Knowledge Innovation Communities Food4Future – Tadeusz Trziszka, Eugeniusz K. Chyłek
    • The efficient functioning of the individual links in the “knowledge triangle”, linking education, research and innovations for business constitutes the EU policy objective, conducted within the frames of public-private partnership and aimed at the effective use of the potential of the intellectual and financial resources from both the State budget and the EU structures and entrepreneurs in economic sphere. The article presents the solutions in the European Union structures that are intended to improve the competitiveness of the economy in the Member States of the Community. It also shows the Polish initiative of the scientific community to become actively involved in the activities of Knowledge Innovation Communities (KIC).
      KEY WORDS: Knowledge Innovation Communities, “knowledge triangle”, public- -private partnerships, knowledge transfer, Horizon 2020, innovation

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 12 Use of Microscopy in the Analysis of Dried Food Structure – Piotr Grzegory, Tomasz Pietrzak, Dariusz Piotrowski
    • Food products, which have reduced water content, are characterized by different structure in comparison to the raw materials. Microscopic analysis becomes useful in the evaluation of structural deformation properties of the raw material – the projection surface, Feret’s diameter (H and V), which arose as a result of drying and status confirmation form of free space and the structure dried. The article presents selected microscopic methods used to study the structure of the dried products in terms of their possibility of using, advantages and limitations of application. Light, confocal, electron microscopic methods were presented. The cellular structure is shown as the structural characteristics of roughness, examined by microscopy. Possibilities of applying microscopy to study dried material properties was analysed using the citations given by research papers in Polish and foreign languages.
      KEY WORDS: microscopy, image analysis, dried food, structure
  • 16 Molecular Methods used to Identify Yeasts in Winemaking – Monika Cioch, Paweł Satora
    • The diversity of yeast microbiota, as being present on the grapes, is determined by different factors, such as grape variety, a degree of berry ripeness, climatic conditions for growing, geographical location, physical damage to grapes or agro-technical treatment. Classical methods of identification based on phenotypic analysis of microorganisms are characterized by a high sensitivity and specificity. PCR- based methods can not only amplify specific gene, but also are used for differentiation and identification of yeast strains. The combination of these two techniques ensures successful full identification.
      KEY WORDS: yeasts, grapes, molecular methods, PCR-RFLP, PCR-RAPD
  • 21 Health Safety of Bottled Waters. Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. – Anna Rygała, Dorota Kręgiel
    • Water intended for human consumption should be safe for consumers. Therefore, the permanent monitoring of water is necessary for determination of its physico-chemical and microbiological characteristic. The microbiological analysis of water from the storage tanks in different means of transport by land, air and water, from cisterns and bottled waters, is based on detection of sanitary indicators: Escherichia coli, enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa rods. The mentioned bacteria are opportunistic pathogens that cause diseases in people with decreased immunity. Aquatic ecosystems are their natural habitat. Detection of P. aeruginosa by reference method is difficult, due to the changes in phylogenetic characteristics, and the presence of accompanying microflora in water. The need for confirmatory testing significantly increases the time of analysis. Pseudalert® test based on Defined Substrates Technology is a new alternative system that can improve the assessment of the microbiological quality of water for P. aeruginosa detection.
      KEY WORDS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudalert, bottled water
  • 25 Ultrasound Cleaners Employed in Food Industry – Sylwia Mierzejewska, Joanna Piepiórka-Stepuk, Sandra Masłowska
    • The paper presents technical analyses of ultrasonic cleaners, used in the food industry. Thirty commercially available equipments were analyzed. They were systematized according to their power and frequency of ultrasound and volume of the cleaning chamber. The technical parameters, such as temperature of operation and work time were shown. The paper presents the effectiveness of ultrasonic cleaning in the context of the work parameters. The most important producer recommendations related of use ultrasonic cleaner were quoted.
      KEY WORDS: ultrasonic waves, hygiene, ultrasonic cleaner
  • 30 Application of Bacteriophages in Food Protection – Dorota Starostka, Agnieszka Olejnik-Schmidt, Marcin Schmidt
    • Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) are widely distributed in nature. They exist in places where their natural hosts – bacteria can live. It is estimated that their number exceeds the number of bacterial cells over thousand times. These viruses may exhibit specificity against single species and even a strain not posing any threat to other groups of microorganisms. The presence of bacteriophages in food indicates the presence of microorganisms. Due to their high specificity and safety to the consumer the idea of using them in the protection of food products was developed. Consumer pressure to reduce the use of chemical preservatives and prohibition of the use of antibiotics for this purpose encourages the development of this natural, yet innovative technology to increase food safety. In this paper, we discussed the properties that should characterize a phage used to protect food, sources of their acquisition and factors influencing their activity.
      KEY WORDS: bacteriophages, food safety, pathogens
  • 33 Detection of Adulteration of Meat and Meat Products. The Selected Methods. – Andrzej Tyburcy
    • In this article, the selected methods were presented, which are used or could be potentially used to counteract fraudulent practices in meat trade and processing. Some disadvantages of DNA analysis used for determination of meat species were indicated. An alternative method of peptide analysis was described. The methods used for detection of undeclared meat freezing, addition of mechanically recovered meat, geographical origin of meat and production systems (traditional or organic) were presented. The way how to determine the maturation time of raw meat products was described. In some cases, when adulteration is suspected, the proper statement requires using of several methods simultaneously.
      KEY WORDS: meat products, adulteration, methods of detection

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 36 What do We Know about Genetically Modified Foods? – Monika Pytka, Monika Kordowska-Wiater, Anna Stój
    • Intensive development of biotechnology and the increasing demands of consumers encourage creating of new genetically engineered foods (GMF). The introduced genetic modifications make it possible to receive food products, mainly of plant origin, with new organoleptic, technological, storing, nutritional, and health characteristics. An interesting group of food additives includes bio-products, produced by genetically modified microorganisms. Despite the possibility of identifying and labeling of GMOs, there are many concerns about the consumption of such products. Therefore, the decision to introduce GMF on the market should be justified, confirmed by laboratory and environmental tests, and compliant with precise regulations that will not raise doubts among the public.
      KEY WORDS: food, GMF, GMO
  • 39 Incorrectly Labeled Fat Products. Nutrition and Health Claims. – Magdalena Zychnowska, Krzysztof Krygier
    • For consumers, the label on a package of a food product is an important source of information about the nutritional value of the product and its influence on health. The food manufacturers are allowed to put the nutrition and health claims on packaging to emphasize specific properties of their products, for example, being essential for consumer health. Nutrition and health claims are designed to help consumers make appropriate decisions regarding purchase product based on the provided information. The analyzed data indicate that despite the fact that the producers met the requirements, they did not include information about nutrition and health claims on fat products. Nutrition and health claims were found on ca. 10% of packages of the examined fat products. Additionally, the cases of incorrectly formulated and placed nutrition and health claims, which are not consistent with the law requirements, were recorded.
      KEY WORDS: nutrition claims, health claims, margarines, oils

EVENTS

  • 42 High Growth Rate of Food Exports in 2013
  • 43 Business Information