Contents 2/2012

Przemysł Spożywczy 2/2012ECONOMY

  • 2 Food Self-Sufficiency of Poland – Iwona Szczepaniak
    • In conditions of the economic globalization the food self-sufficiency of the country is understood as the ability of the total economy, i.e. of agriculture, food industry, as well as of other sectors (including trade) to cover the domestic demand on the food. Analysis of the self-sufficiency of food in Poland on the level of the entire agri-food sector and its individual sectors is the evidence that Poland is self-sufficient in food, and Polish food producers are competitive on the international market. We are self-sufficient, first of all, in basic branches of Polish agri-food sector, i.e. meat, dairy, cereal, sugar and confectionery, fruit-vegetable and tobacco. In the past decade, our self-sufficiency in the production of the mentioned sectors increased, while in remaining sections, it was reduced. The discussed changes are the evidence of the growing specialization of the production of foodstuffs both in Poland, and over the world.
      KEY WORDS: food self-sufficiency, foreign trade, agri-food products


  • 6 The New Microbiological Criteria for Foodstuffs – Halina Ścieżyńska, Elżbieta Maćkiw, Łukasz Mąka, Kamila Pawłowska, Jacek Postupolski
    • Until the accession of Poland to the European Union, different microbiological criteria caused many problems in assessing food quality during official control. Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs consolidates, at the community level, the microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. The Regulation contains two types of criteria: food safety and process hygiene criteria. The European Commission has introduced the following amendments to the mentioned regulation: Commission Regulation (EC) No 1441/2007 of 5 December 2007, No 365/2010 of 28 April 2010 and No 1086/2011 of 27 October 2011.
      KEY WORDS: microbiological criteria, foodstuff, microbiological contamination, pathogenic microorganisms


  • 10 Will the Maximum Levels of Arsenic in Food Be Introduced? – Maria Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Monika Mania, Krystyna Starska, Małgorzata Rebeniak, Jacek Postupolski
    • The article presents the data from Polish national monitoring studies (2004-2008) and data from other European Union countries concerning presently reported arsenic contamination of foodstuffs; health hazards in the light of recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA 2009) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA 2010) opinions were discussed. Current European Union legislation does not contain maximum permissible levels of the discussed element in foodstuffs. This results from insufficient analytical speciation data, not just for total arsenic content but also for more toxic inorganic arsenic compounds. It is important to establish limits for inorganic arsenic content, primarily in rice and processed rice products, especially in baby foods, and to reduce dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic.
      KEY WORDS: total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, food, dietary intake, risk assessment, RASFF


  • 16 INNOPENA® for Increase Innovative Ability of Food Processing Industry in Wielkopolska – Romuald I. Zalewski
    • Innovative activity of food processing industry in Wielkopolska has been reported in the period 2008-2010 by 80 enterprises out of 701 ones, who submitted PNT-02 questionnaire. Most frequent types of innovations are: product, process, managerial and marketing. Most innovative branches are: production of cooking oil, diary, crops/starch and fruit/ vegetables Product innovations moderately influence the quantity and quality of production as well as new markets. The lack of co-operation and information exchange for fostering innovations between entreprises of similar production (horizontal) or along value chain (vertical) and between industry and Universities, R&D sector has been observed. This barrier hinder diffusion of innovations. In the paper main basis of INNOPENA® platform has been presented. This platform supported by open innovation concept could be used to increase the flow of science achievements into practice.
      KEY WORDS: innovativeness of enterprise food industry, sources of innovation, form PNT-02
  • 20 Hygiene and Safety in Food Production – Anna Kozioróg
    • The indispensable condition for running of food manufacturing plant of the highest quality is to ensure the proper standards of hygiene and safety. The main sources causing microbiological contamination in the specific technological line include: raw materials, semi-products, water, air, staff, and parts of technical equipment located in the production hall. Cleaning and disinfection processes are important stages in maintaining appropriate hygiene standards of the food industry. Following these processes is not sufficient. Also, the knowledge of effectiveness of the methods and disinfectants is required to introduce verification procedures.
      KEY WORDS: hygiene, food safety, microbiological contamination, disinfection
  • 28 Fast Methods for Assessment of Hygienic State of Production Surfaces – Dorota Kręgiel, Anna Rygała
    • Fast, alternative hygiene monitoring methods detect not only microbial contamination but also food residues on product contact surfaces. These methods do not necessarily replace the reference methods but provide an additional information in a timely manor to supplement food safety programs by facilitating immediate corrective action, optimising manufacturing processes whilst providing a product quality. The introduction of rapid methods for hygiene monitoring depends on the simplicity of the procedures, skills, costs and applicability in the specific production conditions. The paper describes new methods and tests for hygiene monitoring, both instrumental techniques and simple „visible colour tests” that are applicable to all food processors. However, it should be emphasized, that alternative analytical methods require validation in relation to reference methods.
      KEY WORDS: hygiene, monitoring, reference methods, alternative methods
  • 34 Integration of Food Quality and Food Safety Management Systems – Waldemar Dzwola
    • In the article, there are presented some fundamentals of integration process of food quality and food safety management systems in agri-food sector. The main determinants and benefits of integrated systems are pointed out. The examples of inputs as well as outputs of management systems integration are described. In the paper, series and parallel methods of integration are also characterized. In addition, several basic modules of integration of food quality management systems (QMS, FSMS) and management systems (QMS, FSMS, EMS, OHSAS) are shown. The publication includes a short description of PAS99: 2006 specification and its requirements are referred to Deming cycle (PDCA). In this context, there are pointed out some system areas common for all integrated management systems. Some problems in auditing of integrated systems which are caused by a wide range of topics within integrated systems have been indicated. The process approach during creation of integrated system in which internal auditors examine processes instead of individual components of integrated system can be a significant facilitation in the discussed area.
      KEY WORDS: integration of management systems, food safety, parallel integration, series integration
  • 38 Development of New Health-Promoting Foodstuffs. Part II – Janusz Czapski
    • Important parameters from the point of view of marketing and sales include food safety and health claims made on food. New regulations concerning health claims in the European Union, require that manufacturers have demonstrated the positive impact of the food consumption on health. Effective communication with consumers is crucial for success. New products often fail because they don’t meet consumer expectations or are poorly marketed. The article presents also certain technological problems in the production of health-promoting food. Considerable difficulties with the addition of bioactive components are connected with such their properties as e.g. poor solubility, bitter taste or interactions with product ingredients.
      KEY WORDS: design food, pro health food, new products


  • 44 New Trends of Packaging Production – Hanna Żakowska
    • Development of knowledge in the field of natural environment protection, gradual depletion of global supply of fossil fuel, being a raw material used in production of traditional plastics, and the requirement to limit the emissions of greenhouse gases have influenced the scientific community to search for alternative material sources. One of the directions, developed by scientists is focused on materials from renewable resources. The discussed materials are produced from plant based sources and are characterised by beneficial trace carbon levels. This is due to the fact that plant organisms contain chlorophyll which absorbs CO2 from air, being necessary in the photosynthesis process, and they emit oxygen. This phenomenon results in decrease of CO2 amount in the air and, in a certain sense, it limits the global warming effect.
      KEY WORDS: packaging, emissions of greenhouse gases, renewable resources


  • 48 Poland – Union – World