Contents 2/2019; tome 73


  • 4 Food enterprises on the ranking – List 2000  – Jadwiga Drożdż (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.2.1)
    • The food industry had a large share in the turnover of companies listed on List 2000, as revenues from sales of food producers constituted about 8% of the turnover of all companies on the list, with  a share in employment at the level of 6.7%. The listed food companies included representatives from all sectors of the food industry. The meat and dairy industry was traditionally represented the most, but there were also such branches in which the representation was less numerous, but their turnover accounted for the majority of sales in a given sector (production of su- gar, tobacco products, vegetable fats or beer).The economic and financial situation of the listed food companies was varied. In most of these companies, a positive financial result was achieved result,  and the net profitability ratios were higher than the industry average. In the entities recorded on the list, the percentage of unprofitable companies, measured as both the share in revenues and the number of units than the average in the food industry, was lower.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, economic and financial performance
  • 6 Differentiation of food prices between the European Union countries – Iwona Szczepaniak (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.2.2)
    • The purpose of the paper is to analyse the differentiation of food prices between the European Union countries. The analysis is based on the data from Eurostat, that periodically compares prices of consumer goods and services in households in the EU-28. As regards food products, the comparative analysis covers prices of approximately 440 products. The analysis covers the period of 2004-2017. The analysis shows that price level indexes of food and non-alcoholic beverages vary significantly between the particular EU Member States. At the same time, prices of these products in the „new” EU Member States (EU-13) are much lower than in the „old” Member States (EU-15). Gradual levelling of food prices in the EU can also be observed. The convergence of food prices means that cost-price advantages gradually cease to be a key determinant of international competitiveness for producers from the EU-13 countries. Due to globalization and European integration, the importance of non-price competitiveness factors is systematically growing. This compels food producers from particular countries to seek new sources of competitive advantages.
      KEY WORDS: food, prices, diversification, convergence, European Union


  • 14 The influence of high pressure on the bioavailability of fruit and vegetable antioxidants – lipophilic compounds – Urszula Trych, Sylwia Skąpska, Magdalena Buniowska, Piotr Kaczka, Krystian Marszałek  (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.2.3)
    • The bioavailability of antioxidants present in foods is closely related to the type of compound, its location in the tissue and the composition of the food matrix. The in vitro model of gastrointestinal digestion is an effective tool for studying the bioaccessibility of nutrients. According to the current research high pressure methods of food preservation can increase the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of lipophilic antioxidants, mainly carotenoids and tocopherols, present in fruit and vegetable products. High hydrostatic pressure and high-pressure homogeniza tion affect the structure of plant tissues, causing the damage of natural cellular barriers and facilitating the release of lipophilic compounds from the food matrix and subsequent dissolution in  fats. Ambiguous results of the latest research, resulting from  a large number of factors affecting bioavailability, lead to further studies in this field.
      KEY WORDS: bioavailability, bioaccessibility, lipophilic antioxidants, high pressures
  • 22 The impact of the selected methods of drying beef on the quality of the finished product – Tymoteusz Mysakowski, Tomasz P. Olejnik (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.2.4)
    • Food preservation is a very important process aiming to extend the lifetime of food products. Thanks to it, it is easier to keep and distribute them. The process of drying food helps to decrease levels of moisture in it and thus prevents microorganisms and bacteria from growing. This is the key aspect of this method of food preservation because microorganisms and bacteria are indirectly responsible for food quality (microbiological contamination). The crucial point in explaining the effect of thermal energy on food is selecting an appropriate method of drying so that the desired quality of food is preserved or achieved. The quality of such food is then described in terms of its taste, smell, colour as well as nutritional value. The cost of drying of various food products also plays a role when it comes to picking an appropriate method of reducing moisture content in raw materials. In this article, the selected methods of beef drying are analysed as described in literature. An overview of methods and technologies of drying in the most common meat dryers is provided. Additionally, the conclusions reached upon completing the critical analysis of literature have enabled the selection of the most effective process parameters, taking the criteria of quality and price of dried products into consideration.  The results allow undertaking  a further research.
      KEY WORDS: dried beef, beef jerky, meat snacks, drying, chamber drier, convective drying
  • 28 Analysis of sensory and textural properties of sponge cake with substitutes of wheat flour – Joanna Grad, Agata Marzec  (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.2.5)
    • In the study, the attempt was undertasken to replace wheat flour with with gluten-free flours (from chickpeas, millet and brown rice) in sponge cakes, baked at 160 and 180°C. Sensory and instrumental qualities of color and texture of sponge cakes were evaluated. On the basis of sensory evaluation carried out, taking into account the examined characteristics (appearance, structure and texture, taste, smell and general desirability), the chickpeas flour sponge cake trned out to be the most attractive, regardless of the baking temperature. In terms of taste, the sponge cake produced from brown rice flour acquired the highest notes. The millet sponge cake obtained the lowest marks in terms of each analyzed attributes. A significant influence of the type of flour was observed in the analysis of the brightness and color saturation of sponge cake. Flour type and baking temperature  did not a significant influence on the water content and apparent density of sponge cake, only the water activity of final products varied. Gluten-free sponge cakes were characterized by higher porosity and lower hardness in comparison to the template.
      KEY WORDS: sponge cake, gluten-free food, sensory evaluation, density


  • 36 Current microbiological hazards – Bacillus cereus group – Elżbieta Maćkiw, Joanna Kowalska, Monika Stasiak, Katarzyna Kucharek (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.2.6)
    • Bacillus cereus belongs to bacteria that cause food poisoning of diarrheal and emetic type. Due to the common occurrence in the environment and the ability to form resting structures called spores,  B. cereus poses a threat to the safety of food products. Bacteria of the B. cereus group are mainly isolated from rice, pasta, meat, vegetables, dairy products, spices and ready-to-eat foods.  The risk of infection can be reduced by avoiding consumption of the products which are subjected to heat treatment and left at a room temperature as it favours  germination of spores and production of heat-stable toxins.
      KEY WORDS: bacillus cereus group, safety criteria, microbiological contamination, microbiological hazard
  • 44 Aluminium in food – should we be concerned? – Monika Mania, Małgorzata Rebeniak, Tomasz Szynal, Jacek Postupolski (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.2.7)
    • In the article the health risk associated with the contamination of foodstuffs with aluminium in the light of the opinion of the European Food Safety Authority and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives was discussed. In addition, information on sources of food contamination with the mentioned element as well as, toxicological and legislative aspects were presented. Notifications to the RASFF system concerning the contamination of foodstuffs with aluminium and migration of the discussed element from materials and articles intended to come into contact with food from the period 2013-2018 have been presented, as well.
      KEY WORDS: aluminium, sources of exposure, toxicity, dietary intake, RASFF
  • 48 Kefir up-close – Katarzyna Turek, Monika Wszołek, Jacek Domagała (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.2.8)
    • Kefir is one of the types of fermented milk products commonly known and readily consumed in Poland and around the world due to its health and dietary properties. Very often, we cannot distinguish these products from one another in terms of microbiological or organoleptic features. In addition, we do not have the knowledge to answer the questions: Why is kefir healthy? What microorganisms should be present in this product? Which metabolites are present in this milk product and how they are formed? How is kefir produced? How systematic consumption of kefir can affect our body? The aim of this study is to present the detailed characteristics of kefir, extremely rich in nutrients and  in the diverse microbiota.
      KEY WORDS: kefir, kefir grains, microorganisms, yeast


  • 56 Bioplastics used in food industry – Marzena Pawlicka, Małgorzata Mazańska, Jacek Postupolski (DOI 10.15199/65.2019.2.9)
    • The article discusses bioplastics, essential for the food industry, with their properties and possible applications. The definitions of compostability, biodegradability and oxy-biodegradability are discussed. Issues related to the toxicity of bioplastics and legal requirements that must be met in order to be used in contact with food in the European Union are presented.
      KEY WORDS: bioplastics, biodegradable materials, composting, food industry


  • 19 FOODEXPO, Food and Horeca Fair
  • 41 IFFA
  • 41 Report from the PFPZ ZP conference „Food control in the food chain”
  • 53 Independent water testing with the IDEXX Legiolert ™ ® test in the diagnosis of legionellosis risk
  • 58 The company Chr. Hansen recognized as the most sustainable company in the world
  • 62 WorldFood Poland
  • 62 EuroLab
  • 63 The most modern and the first in Poland the ICP-MS QQQ Thermo Fisher Scientific spectrometer at the University of Agriculture in Krakow