Contents 12/2018; tome 72

ECONOMY

  • 2 Transnational corporations in innovative processes of the food industry – Piotr Chechelski (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.12.1)
    • The article presents the differences that occur between food industry sectors dominated by transnational corporations or domestic capital in respect of expenditures and sources of obtaining funds and the effects of innovative activities. The research shows that in the 21st century TCN positively influenced the growth of innovation and development of the food industry and its sectors. However, competition coming from their side which is growing over time also contributes to increasing the advantage over other entities and leads to the differentiation of the course of innovation processes in the food industry in Poland.
      KEY WORDS: transnational corporations, food industry, innovation processes

LAW

  • 6 Nutrient profiles – the missing element in claims legislation – Marta Zawadka (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.12.2)
    • Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council provides for the setting of nutrient profiles as a criterion determining the use of health and nutrition claims. However, due to the complexity of discussions regarding scientific and economic limitations, nutrient profiles have not been established yet. This state-of-play may be changed with the help of the findings from REFIT evaluation of Regulation No 1924/2006 with regard to, among others, nutrient profiles, which has been carried out by the European Commission. The article presents the definition and possible applications of nutrient profiling. Requirements of Regulation No 1924/2006 on nutrient profiles are also discussed. Furthermore, work conducted so far on nutrient profiles is reviewed: from the EFSA Opinion of 2008, through the model proposed by the EC in 2009 to REFIT evaluation initiated in 2015. Finally, arguments raised in the public debate on nutrient profiles in relation to health and nutrition claims are presented.
      KEY WORDS: nutrient profiles, health and nutrition claims, 1924/2006 Regulation, REFIT evaluation

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 10 Sensory  evaluation of chocolates made from different varieties of cocoa beans – Jolanta Kowalska, Izabela Zasiewska, Bogumiła Urbańska, Marta Ciecierska (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.12.3)
    • Chocolate is one of the preferably consumed confectionery products, which emerge from its sensory and nutritional values, especially the content of minerals as well as polyphenols. Sensory characteristics of chocolate are shaped in a multi-stage technological process, however, they depend to a large extent on the type of cocoa beans and the region of cultivation. The main suppliers of cocoa beans are Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, but also Venezuela, Brazil and Peru. At the sales points, chocolates made of grains from various regions of the world are available. Chocolate obtained by traditional production methods, including the roasting process, as well as the  so-called raw chocolate, produced bypassing the roasting process was analised. It was shown that the most attractive were sensory raw chocolates produced from the Criollo bean  species grown in Peru and from  the Forastero from western Africa.  Chocolates obtained from hybrids of basic varieties of cocoa beans according to panelists did not meet expectations in the field of the analyzed sensory characteristics.
      KEY WORDS: chocolate, raw chocolate, cocoa beans, sensory analysis
  • 16 Selected aspects of food adulteration – Małgorzata Kowalska, Paulina Mitrosz, Klaudia Osytek (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.12.4)
    • The purpose of this work is to show food producers and consumers the potential hazards that may occur in the ingredients that are components of the food product. This paper presents sources of information that can be used both producers and consumers of food. Domestic and foreign institutions have been provided, which deal with the protection of consumers against dishonest practices of food manufactures. The determinants of customer trust in authentic food are also presented. Data to identify the risk of fraud was obtained by following reports  in the RASSF database. Other reliable sources of information on dishonest practices used in food production  were also indicated. Ways of identification and methods of detection of  fakes are discussed. This work also presents the impact of food companies taking up these actions on the trust and purchase decisions of food consumers.
      KEY WORDS: food adulteration, food additives, food control
  • 22 Seaweed as a source of intake of elements harmful to human health with a diet – Monika Mania, Małgorzata Rebeniak, Tomasz Szynal, Jacek Postupolski (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.12.5)
    • The article presents information on the potential health risk related to the consumption of seaweed, taking into account the level of contamination with elements harmful to human health. The assessment was performed on the basis of own results as well as the results collected by the European Union Member States. The current legal status in this area as well as the actions undertaken by the European Commission aimed to proper risk management were also discussed. Attention was also paid to notifications reported under the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) regarding a significant health risk related to the high content of heavy metals in seaweed and food supplements containing them.
      KEY WORDS: heavy metals, seaweed, maximum levels, dietary intake
  • 26 Proteins – characteristics, properties and their alternative sources – Iwona Szymańska, Anna Żbikowska, Paulina Mitrosz (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.12.6)
    • Proteins are macromolecular compounds composed of 20 different forms of α-amino acids. They are characterized by different biological properties and functional features, which are determined by internal factors (eg structural forms of proteins) and by external factors (eg pH, temperature, enzymes). Specified functional properties of proteins determine their use in food production, e.g. solubility – drinks, foaming – cakes, gelation – desserts, emulsification – sauces. Protein preparations used in food production differ, e.g. in protein content, particle size or preparation method (by means of solvents and/or pH changes or by membrane processes). Due to the continuous population growth and the limited nature of available food resources, there is a need to look for alternative sources of protein (eg bacteria, algae). So far, the main source is conventional food, mainly meat of terrestrial animals and legumes. The use of unconventional sources of protein in the food industry has so far been limited, but it creates new perspectives.
      KEY WORDS: sources of protein, alternative proteins, functional properties, food production

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 30 The use of a short-term cold storage in the installation of a compact storage chamber – Rafał Andrzejczyk, Marta Gosz (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.12.7)
    • This article is dedicated to the possibility of using passive cooling systems in mobile storage chambers. It contains an overview of the structures of storage chambers available on the market together with the cooling technologies used inside them. There was carried out an analysis of possible materials for storing cold in passive cooling systems. It was shown that in addition to commercially popular phase change materials (PCM), the use of substances from the group of sugar alcohols also seems to be prospective. The main purpose of the work was to demonstrate the possibility of general use of cold accumulation to reduce the energy consumption of mobile cooling systems and storage for food products.
      KEY WORDS: passive cooling systems, phase change materials, sugar alcohols, cold storing materials
  • 36 Possibilities of utilization of cereal grain by-products – Krzysztof Dziedzic, Maria Różańska, Danuta Górecka, Marzanna Hęś, Sylwia Mildner-Szkudlarz (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.12.8)
    • Non-waste production is one of the main goals of food industry. The possibilities of utilizing by-products are closely related to the development of science and technology. The by-product of one production plant can be the basic raw material in the next production chain. In the recent years ithere was observed an increase of production of cereal grain based food, accompanied by generation of large amounts of various by-products. High concentration of nutrients and bioactive substances allows for using of these products not only for feed production, but also as additives for innovative or functional food. In this work authors showed possibilities to use of by-products obtained from cereal industry.
      KEY WORDS: grain industry, byproducts, composition,  use in food products
  • 42 Linear motion mechanisms in the transport of loose products in the food industry – Dariusz Kryszak, Tomasz P. Olejnik (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.12.9)
    • In the food industry different ways and mechanisms of transport of loose products are used. The main factors influencing the correct choice of the transport method are: type of the product, direction and distance of the transport, efficiency of transport equipment, aesthetics of workmanship, market availability and ease of keeping the transport equipment clean. The most important criterion determining the choice of mean/method of transport is the type, or rather the physico-chemical characteristics, of the product to be transported. A major technological challenge in the food industry is the transport of delicate products, susceptible to mechanical damage. In the food industry there is a variety of delicate products, which can be damaged during transport. This makes it necessary to withdraw the raw material/semi-finished product from the process line. Nevertheless, micro-cracks are important from the point of view of durability and further processing of the raw material, which accelerate the destruction of the product in the subsequent stages of the technological process. Such products/raw materials include soft fruits, crisps and breakfast cereals. The technologist must therefore choose the most appropriate dosage of products in order to reduce the time of operation during which mechanical damage to the product may occur and to minimize the weight of waste. Production programmes are often changed and it is important that the transport equipment has the ability to quickly change over to a new type of product. The main aim of the article is to review the existing methods of transport of loose products (including delicate products) with an indication of the direction of research on improvement of hygienization of equipment while maintaining satisfactory efficiency of transport of delicate products.
      KEY WORDS: Transport of loose products, hygienization of equipment, conveyors, mechanisms
  • 49 Influence of ultrasounds on the food quality – Monika Radzymińska, Andrzej Wesołowski, Ewa Siemianowska (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.12.10)
    • Contemporary consumers expect the market to provide them with food products that would meet their demands in an easy and convenient manner, but at the same being healthy and safe. An increasing segment of customers who search for convenient food products enforces producers to use untypical, innovative methods of food processing. The ultrasound technique perfectly inscribes into the needs of both the consumer and the producer, especially when other methods prove insufficient, ineffective, time-consuming, and expensive. In view of the safety aspect and integrity of a bio-product, the innovative ultrasound technique may also be used in bio-farming and bio-processing. This article presents the results of basic studies accomplished for the benefit of the bio-farming sector and concerning the effect of ultrasounds on the sensory quality of processed meat products and bakery products.
      KEY WORDS: ultrasounds, sensory quality, meat products, bakery products