Contents 12/2016; tome 70

Przemysł Spożywczy 12/2016

ECONOMY

  • 2 Changes in Dietary Habits of Polish People – Mariola Kwasek
    • The increase of expenditure on catering in households, as analyzed according to socio-economic groups and class of locality (urban–rural) in 2005-2010 is an evidence of the growing interest in this form of satisfying the food needs. New dietary habits of Polish people, consisting in eating meals outside the home contribute to the development of the catering market. Diet has a significant impact on human health, his physical and mental development. Excessive consumption of food being rich in fats, especially the saturated ones, sugar and salt leads to the development of diet-related diseases, overweight and obesity recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a 21st century global epidemic. Food industry through activities, including the reformulation of food products, can contribute to improving the health of the Polish population. In Poland there are many programs, aiming at promotion of healthy lifestyle through education of children, youth and adults in the field of nutrition and physical activity.
      KEY WORDS: globalization of the consumption, food consumption expenditure, catering market, overweight and obesity
  • 8 Fishery and Aquaculture Products, Imported from Africa to the European Union. Trends, Species and Threats – Sławomir Keszka, Remigiusz Panicz
    • In spite of uneven development of the continental countries, fishery and aquaculture products are commonly available on the EU market. The main fish producers with the largest marine landings include Morocco, Senegal and the South Africa, whereas freshwater fishery products come from Tanzania, Uganda, Egypt and Nigeria. Within the recent decade, Africa has increased its share in global aquaculture from 1.2 to 2.2 %, mainly due to a rapid development of freshwater fish production in the sub-Saharan region with Nigeria, Egypt and Uganda, as the main producers. Except for traditionally imported from South Africa and Namibia hakes, the new species are expected to emerge on the EU market in the years to come and they will be not only fish. A few notifications in recently published RASFF portal indicate to the problems with the administration which is responsible for veterinary control and quality of the exported products from the African to the EU countries.
      KEY WORDS: Aquaculture, fishery products from Africa, RASFF notifications
  • 14 Analysis of Demand and Supply Conditions of Micro-enterprises on the Polish Fruit Jam Market – Ewa Halicka, Iwona Węderska, Joanna Kaczorowska
    • The production of processed fruits in Poland in 2015 surpassed 1 million 170 thousand tons, of which jams constituted 4% (52 thousand tons). The results of the presented consumer study show that the functioning of micro-companies is determined by economic and demographic supply factors incl. consumers’ income and place of living. SWOT analysis based on the conducted literature review and an IDI with a local producer indicated that due to different opportunities as well as weaknesses the mini-maxi marketing strategy should be implied by local micro-companies (small enterprises). The producers, in order to stay on the market, should actively conduct promotion activities to underline their diverse offer, positive health aspects and sustainability of locally manufactured food products.
      KEY WORDS: jam market, consumption, micro-companies

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 17 Mercury in Food – Planned Legislative Changes – Monika Mania, Małgorzata Rebeniak, Tomasz Szynal, Maria Wojciechowska-Mazurek
    • The paper presents the current work of the European Commission in scope of food contamination with mercury and planned in connection with this change and harmonization of legislation. The recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority in terms of benefits and risks of fish consumption as well as the work of FAO/WHO which contributed to take action in this area were also discussed. Notifications to RASFF concerning the contamination of foodstuffs with mercury from the period 2013-2015 have been presented as well.
      KEY WORDS: total mercury, methylmercury, food, dietary intake, risk assessment, RASFF
  • 20 Food Additives in Organic Products – Aneta Brodziak, Jolanta Król
    • Currently, according to the Commission Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 as amended, the use of 53 additives is permitted in organic food, in comparison with 321 substances allowed in conventional production. Substances which may be used in organic food production were presented with regard to the group of processed products, i.e. plant or animal origin. Furthermore, the additives most frequently used in organic dairy products available on the Polish market were reported. Problem of sodium nitrite and potassium nitrate application was also discussed.
      KEY WORDS: organic food, preservatives, sodium nitrite
  • 26 Microencapsulation as a Method of Edible Oils’ Stabilization – Dorota Ogrodowska, Sylwester Czaplicki, Małgorzata Tańska
    • In the present article, the possibility of production, characteristics and application of encapsulated oils in food technology were discussed. Microencapsulation is a technique used for coating or encapsulating one or more materials inside another material. Nowadays, the most popular method of oil encapsulation is spray drying, which allows transforming the emulsion into powder, simultaneously preserving its valuable properties. In the paper, the types of coating materials and their influence on the quality of the obtained powder were described. The most popular coating materials include gums and polysaccharides, which protect core of microcapsules against oxidation. Capsules of plant oils may become an alternative to traditional functional additives, used on large scale in food processing. Actually, microencapsulated oils are applied in yogurts, cheeses, breads, meat products and juices.
      KAY WORDS: bioactive compounds, microencapsulation, spray drying, freeze drying
  • 29 The Microbiological Sources of EPA – Iwona Gientka, Przemysław Grela, Anna M. Kot, Lidia Stasiak-Różańska
    • The article discusses the possibility of receiving eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from microbial sources. The diminishing of natural EPA sources – fish and seafood – is the main reason for searching an efficient producer. EPA may constitute diet supplements and is a valuable addition to oils and margarine products, meat and dairy products and food concentrates. Among the microorganisms, the moulds are the best producers of EPA. The moulds have the ability to efficiently accumulation of fats with a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including EPA.
      KEY WORDS: eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, molds, yeasts, bacteria, microalgae
  • 32 Energy Consumption in Hybrid Process of Turkey Meat Drying – Jolanta Gawałek, Antoni Ryniecki
    • The effect of the selected parameters on energy consumption in three-step turkey meat drying process (including microwave-vacuum drying phase) is analyzed. Whole process is carried out as follows: the first step – convection drying to 30% and 40% moisture content; the second step – 2,5 minutes microwave-vacuum drying; the third step: convection drying to 6% final moisture content. Convection drying supported by microwave-vacuum process leads to significant energy saving (better effect available with microwave-vacuum started with lower moisture content). In drying conditions: t = 70C and v = 1,3 m/s for which drying rate is the highest, energy savings reached 16% level. Increase of convection drying temperature to 70C lowers energy consumption (but above this level energy consumption rises). Increase of drying agent flow rate causes higher energy demand. The highest quality of dried turkey meat is obtained during three-step process and convection drying temperature set to 70C.
      KEY WORDS: turkey meat, convection drying, microwave vacuum drying, energy consumption

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 36 Natural Vegetal Spices, their Chemical Composition and Health-Promoting Properties. Characteristics of Spices – Marek Kardas, Katarzyna Toczyńska, Elżbieta Grochowska-Niedworok
    • The article presents the specific chemical composition of spices, through which they owe their unusual properties. The following nutrients and non-nutritive ingredients of spices were characterized: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals, ethereal oils, alkaloids, glycosides (anthocyainns, flavonoids), carotenoids, tannins, phytoncides and others. Health promoting properties of spices such as garlic, oregano, thyme, marjoram, basil, cumin, rosemary, lovage, dill, cumin, bay leaf, black pepper, turmeric, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, star anise and saffron were discussed. Many of them have antiviral, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and antioxidant activity; therefore, they have a beneficial effect on the human body and can help in the prevention and control of diseases.
      KEY-WORDS: spices, chemical composition, health promoting properties
  • 41 The Selected Hazards Associated with Food Consumption – Ewa Czarniecka-Skubina, Marlena Pielak
    • The paper presents the selected hazards in food: chemical, physical and biological, including microbiological ones. They are associated with acquiring raw material and with technological and storage processes. Certain substances can also be intentionally added to the food for falsification or bioterrorism. The modern consumer is aware of this and wants to be informed about safety of the food available on the market, in order to choose the right food for him.
      KEY WORDS: food, food safety, health hazards
  • 45 Knowledge of Personnel on Hygiene and Production Practices – Marzena Tomaszewska, Joanna Trafiałek, Wiesława Grzesińska
    • The aim of the study was to estimate the knowledge of staff on hygiene and selected production practices in small catering facilities. The studies were conducted using a questionnaire survey of 115 production workers. In order to analyze the results the coefficient of Spearman (rS) was counted in the Statistica v. 12 program. The surveyed employees presented an appropriate level of knowledge only in a part of studied issues such as: the need to monitor of the finished products temperatures and separable storage of processed foods from unprocessed ones. While still problematic were selected issues of personal hygiene like: jewelry in the production area and the procedures for the food poisoning. Moreover, they were characterized by an incomplete knowledge regarding the storage of finished products. The studies indicated areas where personnel knowledge was insufficient, which enables to schedule a program of targeted training with a focus on the issues which are a practical problem in understanding and application of the knowledge.
      KEY WORDS: food safety, training, knowledge, perception of hygiene
  • 49 Annual Contents. The List of Articles – “Food Industry” 2016