Contents 12/2013

Przemysł Spożywczy 12/2013


  • 2 Growing Polish Exports of Agri-Food Products – Mirosława Tereszczuk
    • The export of Polish agri-food products, during nine years of our membership in the EU, increased by almost four and a half fold (from 4.0 to 17.9 billion euros) and import – four-fold (from 3.5 to 13.5 billion euros). The trade balance has increased during the discussed period more than eight times, to 4.3 billion euros. The growth in exports has been mainly determined by large supply of agri-food products in our country, the continuing high demand for Polish food products abroad (mainly in the EU) and the favorable price and high quality of the offered products. This dynamic growth of exports was possible thanks to the acquisition of substantial resources from the EU funds, as well as the inflow of direct foreign investments in Polish food enterprises.
      KEY WORDS: agri-food products, foreign trade, exports, imports, foreign trade balance
  • 6 Diminishing Consumption of Food Products – Krystyna Świetlik
    • A worsening of the economic situation, an increase in unemployment, and the continuing process of reduction of the fiscal imbalance have resulted in a lower rate of growth of personal income and consumption in Poland over the last few years. These factors have had a negative impact on the consumption of food products. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the main direction of change in consumption of food products in Poland during the period 2009-2012. On the basis of macroeconomic data from GUS, results of household budget surveys, and our own internal statistical analyses, it is concluded that, during the period 2009-2012, real expenditure by households on food products as well as consumption volume have decreased, what was confirmed by trade statistics. The reduction in global demand for food, as measured by real value of expenditure in the household sector, was accompanied by significant changes in its structure under the influence of diversification of supply and pricing of individual products on the market.
      KEY WORDS: GDP, economic crisis, consumption of food products, retail sales
  • 12 Domestic Market of Fish – Stabilisation with an Upward Tendency – Krzysztof Hryszko
    • Year 2012 was the year of domestic fish market stability and achieving a relative balance after a sharp increase in prices of raw materials, both direct (fish and seafood, oils, vegetables, etc.) and indirect (energy, fuel, gas). As a result, many fish processing companies had the problems with maintaining the production profitability, what affected a speeding up of restructuring and consolidating actions in the industry, especially among the largest companies. Finally, many of the planned operations did not take place or were postponed, confirming a difficulty and complexity of this market (101 companies that obeyed a regime on statistical reporting and sent data to CSO). In 2012, the net profit fish processing companies was equal to PLN 105 million and was comparable to the result, achieved in the previous year. However, it was 60% less than in a record high 2009. At the same time, the revenues on sales of fish, processed fish products and seafood continue an upward trend (up to PLN 7.2 billion), both on domestic market and those coming from exports.
      KEY WORDS: fishery, fish processing, foreign trade, fish consumption


  • 18 Development in Processed Cheese Technology – Katarzyna Kycia, Małgorzata Ziarno
    • The paper presents methods of classification of processed cheeses, available in the world. The main directions of changes in the processed cheese technology refer to the possibility of melting cheese using raw materials which are easy to obtain and which utilize techniques enabling to control the functional properties of the final products. Moreover, the difference between the processed cheese and processed cheese analogue was explained. The directions of the future development of processed cheese in the segment of the functional food were described.
      KEY WORDS: processed cheese, processed cheese analogues, categories, trends
  • 24 The Concepts of Stability of Foods with Low and Intermediate Water Content – Zbigniew Pałacha
    • The article presents the current concepts of assessing the stability of foods with low and intermediate water content. The principles of water activity and glass transition concepts were described and the possibilities of combining these concepts to assess food stability were discussed. There was also presented the macro-micro region concept of foods in the state diagram. Moreover, the critical temperature concept for food stability was defined and discussed.
      KEY WORDS: water activity, glass transition, glass transition temperature, critical temperature, food stability
  • 29 Staling of Bread and the Methods for its Slowing – Daria Romankiewicz, Alicja Ceglińska, Grażyna Cacak-Pietrzak
    • Staling is an unfavorable process that occurs during the storage of bread. It leads to the loss of flavour of fresh bread, growth of the crumb hardness and its crushing. The article discusses factors affecting the flavour of fresh bread, staling mechanism and the role of starch and proteins in this process. The most frequently applied modifications in the production technology aiming at slowing the bread staling, such as addition of scalded flour and enzymes or partial substitution of wheat flour with oat flour were presented.
      KEY WORDS: mechanism of staling, starch, proteins, bread freshness


  • 35 Sushi – Functional Ready-to-Eat Meal – Ewa Dybkowska, Małgorzata Żebrowska-Krasuska, Justyna Serwatka, Bożena Waszkiewicz-Robak
    • Sushi is a traditional Japanese dish, consisting of the rice, raw fish or sea food, nori seaweed, and vegetables. The nutritional value and microbiological purity of the 7 sushi dishes sold in the stores as ready-made food were tested in this study. The nutritional value depended on the ingredients used to prepare the dish. The rice was the basic ingredient of the sushi; it was the source of carbohydrates in the dish. The sushi without fish, containing various vegetable additions, was characterized by a low amount of the proteins and fat (below 3%). The amount of proteins was increased by the fish additions. The level of fat in the dish was mainly dependent on its volume in the raw materials that have been used. The microbiological purity tests showed the occurrence of Escherichia coli bacteria in the sushi dishes sold in the stores, but any presence of Salmonella bacterium nor Listeria monocytogenes was not found. The appropriate conditions of obtaining, transport, preparation and storage of the ingredients and products are crucial for the proper microbiological quality of the dish.
      KEY WORDS: sushi, fish, rice, prepared foodstuff


  • 39 Foodstuffs as Stored Loads and Reserves. Part 1I – Radosław Sutkowski, Stanisław Kalisz
    • A food storage warehouse is any premise, establishment, building, room area, facility, or place, in whole or in part, where food is stored and kept. Storage and distribution plays a key role in the food supply chain. The article takes into consideration the conditions of storage such as: temperature, humidity, light radiation. The article presents the most frequently used industrial warehouses. The paper includes some information on legal regulations concerning food safety in terms of food warehouses.
      KEY WORDS: food, warehouse, storage, food safety


  • 44 Business Information
  • 46 Annual Contents. The List of Articles – „Przemysł Spożywczy” 2013